Text: William Doyle Hull II, “Part V, Chapter II,” A Canon of the Critical Works of Edgar Allan Poe (1941), pp. 518-625


∞∞∞∞∞∞∞


[page 518:]

Chapter II: Commentary on the Critical Writings in Broadway Journal
 
Volume II: January 4 to June 28, 1845

In 1848 Poe gave Mrs. Whitman a copy of the Broadway Journal which she described to Ingram:

In the two bound vols of the Broadway Journal, now in my possession every anonymous article or paragraph written by him has the pencilled letter P. appended to it. He added these letters in giving me the volume.(1)

By April 3 she had mailed this copy of the Journal to Ingram.(2) It was later purchased by the Huntington Library, where it is now. Photostats of those pages containing writing of any sort were secured by the Alderman Library of the University of Virginia from the Huntington Library in 1941.

All of the pencilled P’s seem to be from one hand;(3) this much of Mrs, Whitman’s statement may be accepted. “Every anonymous article or paragraph written by him,” however, is not so marked. Leaving out of consideration everything but articles containing criticism, there are thirty-eight reviews, notices, and editorial bits which are definitely Poe’s — that is for which there exists absolutely conclusive evidence — which are nor marked with a P. It would seem that Poe went hurriedly through the two volumes and marked only those things which he wished to call to Mrs. Whitman’s attention.

There is no reason to think that either Mrs. Whitman or Ingram made additions. All of the P’s seem to be from the same hand. Nevertheless, to be on the safe side, I have not considered this evidence conclusive [page 519:] in itself. In each case I have presented all the available evidence, and at the end I have jointed out the signature. When other evidence is present, even though it be only internal, the P constitutes conclusive evidence.

Harrison wrote in the introduction to volume XII of the Virginia edition of Poe’s Works:

More than passing interest attaches to our source and authority for the Broadway Journal contributions. They are taken from Poems own copy of this periodical, which he presented to Mrs. Whitman, marking with a “P” or “E.A.P,” the articles he wrote. There is no doubt, therefore, concerning the authenticity of the material. This highly valuable copy of the Journal eventually passed into the hands of Mr. F. R. Halsey, through whose courtesy we were enabled to make a verbatim copy.(1)

By thus assuming, as apparently he does, that only those articles signed are Poe’s, Harrison excludes from consideration a very great many notices which are either certainly or very probably, Poe’s. Four articles, however, which are certainly Poe’s, he includes in his canon although they are not signed by Poe.(2) And ten articles which are signed by Poe he omits from his canon.(3)

A receipt extant in Poe’s autograph on a blank page in one copy of the Journal has already been copied, it should be examined again:

New-York. Jany 20th 45. Recd. of Mr. John Bisco eighteen dollars, in full for two articles in ‘Broadway Journal‘.

Edgar A. Poe.(4) [page 520:]

This acknowledged payment for the two-installment Barrett review and for the article on Willis, which appeared in the Journal for January 18.

This is evidence direct the: in all probability Poe contributed only these three items through the number for January 18, In conjunction with other evidence, even internal, this consideration will suffice to give definitely all notices for these three issues, not otherwise attributed, to Briggs.

JANUARY 4, 1845.

* MIND AMONG THE SPINDLES. B.

This review follows the “Introductory” in which Briggs(1) introduces the Magazine to the public and sets forth generally its policies. The “Introductory” concludes:

But as the eye can see everything but itself, so an Editor is very likely to see everybody’s mistakes but his own, and we shall certainly quarrel with no good natured friend who reminds us of our slips (BJ, I, 2).

The review begins:

Our first review shall be of an American author, what one we shall determine by lot, to save us from a partial feeling in the outset, when we have concluded our prefatory remarks (BJ, I, 2).

Quite clearly one article is a continuation of the other. The “prefatory remarks” are, in the first paragraph of the review, concerned with making clear the editor’s feeling that “There should be no sectional feelings in literature or art.” [page 520:]

It would ill become us, then in the outset of our career as reviewers,(1) to enter upon our duty with a narrow feeling of partiality for our own authors, to the unjust exclusion of foreigners, from our sympathies. But this liberal feeling will compel us to give our first attention and widest space to the authors of our wan country, because they have the greatest odds to contend with, having a forestalled opinion against them in the minds of their own countrymen, and the boat paid and most, fertile authors for competitors, whose works are imported sect free to our markets (BJ, I, 2).

The rest of the “prefatory remarks” elaborate on the distressing lot of American authors, comparing it with the halcyon state of the English. In the “Introductory” Briggs wrote:

. . . we have no inducements to indulge in the luxury of puffing; but as entertain so kindly a feeling towards the whole brood of unfortunates, called American authors, that we can never find it in our hearts to treat them otherwise than with honest candor (BJ, I, 1).

In the “Introductory” one finds:“. . . in Griswold’s Pantheon . . .” (BJ, I, 1) ; in the review: “. . . Mr. Griswold, erects a Pantheon . . .” (BJ, I, 2).

The book under review is a collection of papers written by women workers in Massachusetts cotton-mills, published in England. From this section of the article one sentence till suf fico far evidence:

. . . if the Northern slaves — as the South Carolina statesmen call our honest laborers, who live by the sweat of their own brows — can produce a work like this . . . (BJ, I, 3).

It is quite clear that Briggs is the author of “Mind Among the Spindles.”

* 1. THE DRAMA OF EXILE, AND OTHER POEMS. BY ELIZABETH BARRETT.

In three “Marginalia” passages there are echoes of this review. In the Messenger for April, 1849, Poe quoted eighteen lines of verse here [page 522:] cited with the same italics, save for one line. There he dented: “The picturesque vigor of the lines italicized is much more than Homeric” (SLM, XV, 218; H, XVI, 136) ; here: “There is an Homeric force here — vivid picturesqueness . . .” (BJ, I, 6; H, XII, 10). In Graham’s February, 1848: “. . . the most profound thought is that which can be the least easily distinguished from the most superficial sentiment” (GM, XXXII, 131; H, XVI, 135) ; here:” . . .for it is the nature of thought in general, as it is the nature of some ores in particular, to be richest when most superficial” (BJ, I, 5; H, XII, 5). In the first installment of “Marginalia” in the Democratic Review, November, 1844, Poe quoted the sentence from Sir James Puckle’s Gray Cap for a Green Head with which he begins this review: “A well-bred man will never give himself the liberty to speak ill of women” (DR, XV, 488 ; H, XVI, 12. BJ,.I,4; H, XII,1). There he said: “. . . for a woman will never be brought to admit a non-identity between herself and her book . . .” (DR, XV,488; H, XVI, 12) ; here: “. . . (a woman and her book are identical).  . .” (BJ, I, 4-5; H, XII, 1).

Poe’s impatience with allegory will be remembered; he expressed it often in the Graham’s reviews. Here again he attacks it as a method. One sentence finds a close parallel in the Godey’s, November, 1847, review of Hawthorne. There:

. . . but the pleasure derivable from it (Pilgrim’s Progress), in any sense, will be found in the direct ratio of the readers capacity to smother its true purpose, in the direct ratio of his ability to keep the allegory out of sight, or of his inability to comprehend it (GLB, XXXV, 254; H, XIII, 149) ;

here:

In this instance, so far as the allegorical instruction and argumentation are lost sight of, in the upper [page 523:] current — so far as the main admitted mention of the work is kept out of view — so far only is the work a poem worth notice, or worthy its author (BJ, I, 7; H, XII, 11-12).

Signed “P” in the Whitman copy, with a marginal textual correction.

* IS GENIUS CONSCIOUS OF ITS OWN POWERS? SIGNED: C.

* THE AMERICAN POULTERER’S COMPANION. BY C. N. BEMENT.

. . . perhaps there is no article of food so universally eaten as eggs, and none so necessary to eat fresh (BJ, I, 15).

This awkwardness is not like Poe; nor is the tone of the whole:

No one who has had the good fortune to eat at Mr. Bement’s table — his public one, we mean — will doubt this. His treatise is accordingly a labor of love; and to those who have ever been engaged in the pleasant business of rearing poultry, it will read like a fairy tale (BJ, I, 15).

With the eternal evidence of the receipt, there can be no doubt that this, as well as the two remaining notices, is Briggs:

* FLOWERS FOR CHILDREN. BY L. MARIA CHILD.

The accomplished author of them never uses her pen in vain, because she never uses it with a sinister motive . . . These ‘Flowers for Children’ have all the freshness and unpretending beauty of the flowers for children which God sprinkles in the high ways and fields, and we think that children must love them as well, for they come iron the hands of one who has unbounded love for them . . . As the child is the father of the man, his mental food should always be of the same quality, though given in different quantities. No book is fit for a child that is not profitable for a man . . . Many of these unpretending ‘flowers’ are as fit for even who are just on the verge of second childhood, as for those who are yet in their first (BJ, I,15).

* THE MAGAZINES

This notice opens with a paragraph of commendation on the Knickerbocker, a magazine which, so far as I am aware, Poe never praised. The [page 524:] style is of that general sort of looseness which characterizes that of Briggs:

. . . a paper on the inequalities of wealth which has merit enough to sanctify all its other contents . . . Among all our M.P’s (as George Cruikshank calls the monthly periodicals,) the Knickerbocker is the oldest. This nobody will deny. The London Literary Gazette says it is the best, which somebody probably will dispute, for it is the fate of every body and everything in this world to have enemies as well as friends. If old age is in evidence . . . (BJ, I, 15).

For especial. notice the reviewer singles out “a delicate piece of verse by John Waters, whose prose essays are more like poetry than his verse” (BJ, I,15). In the Journal for January 25 Briggs did a full sketch of Waters which elaborates this attitude. The concluding sentence of this review carries us back to the “Introductory” end “Mind Among the Spindles.” It is addressed to Mr. Bentley who is printing in his Miscellany a series of papers, ludicrous in their inaccuracies, on New York by an Englishman:

. . . he will find a plenty of American pens that could be employed in his service, for a very moderate compensation (BJ, I,15).

JANUARY 11, 1845.

* 2. THE DRAMA OF EXILE, AND OTHER POEMS. BY ELIZABETH BARRETT BARRETT

The January 4 critique ended: “To be continued”; this begins: “Concluded.” Poe says here: “Her constructive ability, as are have already suggested, is either not very remarkable . . .” (BJ, I, 17; H, XII, 19). The passage on quaintness is reproduced in “Marginalia,” the Messenger, May, 1849: H, XVI, 1.6, 159, to 1.5, 160, from H, XII, 1.24, 20, to 1.26, 21, with one phrase omitted, two sentences paraphrased, one word omitted, and two phrases paraphrased. The passage on Shelley and his imitators is reproduced in “Marginalia,” the Messenger, May, 1849, exactly save [page 525:] for the changing of a few words for greater conciseness: H, XVI, 1.21, 148, to 1.27, 150, from XII, 1.13, 32, to 1.17, 34.(1) The passage on “Locksley Hall” and “Lady Geraldine’s Courtship” is found in “Fifty Suggestions,” Graham’s, June, 1845: H, XIV, 182, 11. 4-13, from XII,16,11. 20-30, exact except for the change from “we” to “I” and one alteration and one omission of phrase. In “About Critics and Criticism,” Graham’s, January, 1850, Poe attacked Whipple for regarding a stanza of Mrs. Browning as flawless. The passage is word for word from this review, save that “we” has become “I”; Miss Barrett,” “Mrs. Browning”; and one sentence is altered to introduce Mr. Whipple: H, XIII, 1.27, 200, to 1.15, 202, from XII,1, 5, 23, to 1.32, 24. The quotation from Bacon on exquisite beauty, which Poe uses here, is also found in “Anastatic Writing. “(2)

On May 17, 1845, Horne wrote Poe from London:

As I thought your letter contained more of the bright side of criticism than the ‘Broadway Journal’ I sent it to my friend Miss Barrett. She return (ed) it with a note — half of which I tear off, and send you (confidentiall (y) ) that you may see in what a good and noble spirit she receives the critique — in which, as you say, the shadows do certainly predominate.(3)

Miss Barrettes note:

But I am uncomfortable about mat message to Mr. Pose lest it should not be grateful enough in the sound of it. Will you tell him what is quite the truth, that in my opinion he has dealt with me most generously, and that I thank him for his candour as for a part of his kindness. Will you tell him also that he has given my father pleasure, which is giving it to me more than twice. Also the review is very ably written — and the [page 526:] reviewer has so obviously and thoroughly read my poems, as to be a wonder among critics. Will you tell Mr. Poe this, or to this effect, dear Mr. Horne . . .(1)

Signed “P” in the Whitman copy with a marginal textual correction.

* AGINCOURT. BY G. P. R. JAMES. B.

In the Burton’s review of James’ The Gentleman of the Old School Poe wrote:

We have been told, by one who should know, that Mr. James’ habits of composition are peculiar. — for exile, that, while walking to and fro hurriedly, he dictates, in an excited manner, to, an amanuensis; and that it is impossible for the latter, although a practised penman, and chosen principally an account of his rapidity of hand, to keep pace with the improvisation of the novelist. We hear, moreover, from a different source, that the MSS. thus furiously indited are committed to the press, and issued, without farther intervention on the part of the author (BGM, V, 114).

The Journal reviewer writes:

We know a gentleman, who once, for lack of better business, sated as Mr. James’s amanuensis, and put upon pager some half a dozen of his romances. He says that Mr. James used to pour them out like a mountebank pulling ribbons from his mouth, and apparently with as little mental exertion (BJ, I, 21).

It seems probable that the sources of information are identical; but that constitutes here no evidence. In any event, information of this sort is always the stock-in-trade of literary gossip. I am convinced by the general looseness and repetitiousness of this review (which in really no review at all) that it is Briggs‘. The external evidence of the receipt makes the attribution conclusive, as it does in the case of the other [page 527:] reviews of this week. Poe could have raid in fifteen lines what is here spread over two columns. Over and over again — like a rondo — the reviewer comments on and wonders, at Mr. James’ mass production of novels and his general tepid insipidity. Some idea of the style may, be suggested by a quoting of the first words of several successive sentences: “His claims . . . His position . . . He must be . . . His is one . . . With us his novels . . . But he has . . .” (BJ, I, 21). The tone is that of the chatty essay:

We took up a book a few months since . . . We have seen . . . We knew a gentleman . . . We also know a country gentleman . . . We know a gentleman . . . (BJ, I, 20-21),

One finds a grammatical error:

The first chapter in either of Mr. James’s(1) books will afford a good example of the manner in which he makes up his volumes (BJ, I, 21).

Briggs has not before this referred to any specific novels of James; and, after his having for a whole column insistently emphasised the gigantic mass of James’ output, the “either of Mr. James’s books” seem sufficiently ludicrous. The review ends:

Mr. James has one very great merit; he never makes use of foreign term but employs only words that can be found in English dictionaries (BJ, I, 2l).

Poe objected to the introduction of phrases such as “Bonjour, M’sieu, qu‘arrive,” etc. into dialogue supposedly conducted in French on the ground that it destroyed the vraisemblance of it; but any one who has read Poe recalls the number of Latin, Greek, French, German, and Italian words sprinkled through his works. [page 528:]

* SKETCHES OF AMERICAN PROSE WRITERS, NO. 1. WILLIAM A. JONES. (SIGNED) : D

The January 16 Lowell letter to Briggs makes it clear that Duyckinck is the author.(1)

* THE PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE OF OBSTETRIC MEDICINE AND SURGERY. BY FRANCIS H. RAMSBOTHAM. B.

We do not notice this important work to make its merits known to the profession or the public, but to point out one of the many evils which we inflict upon ourselves, by denying to foreign authors the rift to control their own works (BJ, I, 29).

This is the first of the “Notices of New Books.” From the first issue to that of Nsroh 15 the longer reviews appeared on the first pages under that name, while the short notices were printed in the back of the magazine. The external evidence of the receipt is strengthened in the case of these notices IV another consideration. There would be no point in Briggs’ asking (or Poe’s submitting) a contributor paid by the column to contribute to an issue one or more of these brief notices, which as a rule do not give evidence of more than a hasty scanning of the book. One recognises here the continuance of the crusade Briggs began with the first number: a crusade for international copyright.

* CONVERSATIONS ON SOME OF THE OLD POETS. BY JAMES RUSSELL LOWELL. B.

We have only time this creek to notice the outside of this new book . . . Its contents may be safely trusted in without criticism (BJ, I, 29).

A full review appeared in the next issue, January 18; and in the January 25 appeared another notice with (Second Notice,) printed under the heading [page 529:]

The firsts is merely an announcement of publication, and the last is nothing, except for a sentence or two, but quotations from the book. There is no doubt that Briggs is the author of all three, There is sufficient internal evidence to be conclusive; it need not, however, be presented, for there is direct external evidence. Briggs wrote Lowell around January 22:

I shall think better of you myself for knowing that you can feel so strongly and write so harshly, it justifies the opinion that I expressed of you in my notice of your ‘Conversations’ . . .(1)

* THE DRAMA. B

One recognizes here in the first lines again the Editor making clear his policies:

We can afford but little space in our Journal to dramatic affairs. Indeed, we believe there are few things which the public cares so little about, as the gossip of the Theatres . . . But we intend, nevertheless, to devote a portion of our columns to the amusements of this city, and the Theatres will, of course, be included among them. Whatever interests the people is the legitimate object of our study, and the less creditable the object may be, the greater is the necessity of its being looked after (BJ, I, 30).

The drama column for January 25 begins:

A good natured friend, who seems to labor under a very erroneous impression, that we have an idea of setting the North River on fire, has entirely misunderstood the moaning of our initial remarks on the Theatres . . . The critic of the Wr-o ;, asked the other day, ‘Are o, u,Z The,,stges worthy of juwnoi;C t e 2 3ut that is not the Important que stun, ’SHY UM ‘MXY NO‘? is the great question. We said that the Theatre had not been a reputable profession since the time of Queen Elisabeth (BJ, I, 58). [page 530:]

The January 11 column has: “Since the days of Queen Elisabeth, the Theatre has always been in disrepute” (BJ, I, 30).

The phrase in the January 25 article, “our initial remarks,” applied also to the column for January 18, a review of Old Heads and Young Hearts. In the January 11 column the critic said:

With us the stage has never boon indigenous. There have been but few American actors and not one American dramatist. The whole atmosphere of our Theatres is essentially English. All the plays present English scences [[scenes]], English characters, English thoughts, delivered in English accents . . . If a cockney should fall asleep in the Haymarket and awake in the Park Theatre, he would be hardly conscious of a change (BJ, I, 30).

The notice of Old Heads and Young Hearts has:

It was popular in London, after the first night (when it was not very warmly received,) and of course is popular hero. The success of a play like this, proves the truth of our view on the state of the stage (BJ, I, 35).

This last sentence must refer to the January 11 article, for it appears as the third sentence in the January 18 review, and no other views have been expressed. It is clear enough that Briggs is the author of all three of these pieces. The evidence of the receipt is operative for the first two in addition.

JANUARY 18, 1845.

CONVERSATIONS ON SOME OF THE OLD POETS. BY JAMES RUSSELL LOWELL. B.

For proof that this is Briggs’ see pages 528-9 of this section.

ILLUSTRATED GENEALOGY OF GEORGE WASHINGTON.

At the end of this notice is printed “ (Communicated.) “. After none of the Poe reviews in the Journal is there any sort of an ascription or explanation (save for some of the “Outis” articles which are signed [page 531:] “P”). The evidence of the receipt is sufficient to deny it to Poe.(1)

* GOLDSMITH’S GEMS OF PENMANSHIP. B.

Mr. Goldsmith has almost elevated his art into the upper region of they fine arts . . . It is a thousand pities that all who write; and they include nearly all of the population of our country, could not main some apprach [[approach]] to the perfection which Mr. Goldsmith has attained in the use of the pen (BJ, I, 35).

This brief notice, as well as the following which is nothing more than an announcement, is given to Briggs by the evidence of the receipt.

* AN ILLUSTRATED EDITION OF BRYANT’S POEMS. B.

* THE DRAMA. ‘OLD HEADS AND YOUNG HEARTS‘. B.

For proof that this is Briggs‘, see pages 529-30 of this chapter.

* 3. AMERICAN PROSE WRITERS. NO. 2. N. P. WILLIS,

In the Godey’s, May, 1846, “Literati” article on Willis, Poe has a footnote a propos of fancy:“.,.I may be pardoned for repeating here what I have elsewhere said on this topic” GLB 7CXXII,196~ E6XV,13). He quotes them: in a long footn+ste (XV,13-15), a passage from this sketch: 119XTI,3?,11.16••34; and 1.16,38 to 1.15,40, exactly except for the changing of some two or throe words and two inversions. The opinion on Moore hers expressed Foe copied in “Fifty suggestions,” Graham’s June, 1845: FL X II, l83, n.18.25, from X11,38,12,4-40, with only one alteration.

Signed “P” in the Whitman copy.

* THE MAGAZINES. B.

The Democratic Review for January, contains, as we have already noticed, as admirable paper on the social qualities of our condition (BJ, I, 45). [page 532:]

The January 4 notice, “The Magazines,” has: “The Democratic Review for this month, contains a paper are the inequalities of wealth . . .” (BJ, I, 15). Here one finds:

The age of this Magazine tolls the whole story of its excellence. Nothing short of real merit could have kept it in existence . . . (BJ, I, 45) ;

there:

If old age is evidence of a good constitution in a man, it is no less so in a magazine. The Knickerbocker must have something good about it, or it never could have lived to its present age (BJ, I, 45).

The earlier notice is Briggs‘, and so is this. The evidence of the receipt is, also, still in force.

JANUARY 25, 1845.

* HINTS ON THE RE-ORGANIZATION OF THE NAVY. B.

The Journal of February 8 prints a letter heeded “The Navy“, addressed “Mr. Editor,” which points out several errors in this review. At the and of the letter is this Editorial Note:

(We give place to the above communication with a good deal of pleasure; if we misunderstood the author of the pamphlet on the re-organization of the Navy, we regret it, and will cheerfully correct our mistake . . . We shall recur to the subject again. — ED.) (BJ, I, 86).

Clearly this is Briggs‘. He is living up to the promise he made In the “Introductory” to cheerfully receive all corrections and suggestions.

THE NATURAL BOUNDARIES OF EMPIRES, AND A NEW VIEW OF COLONIZATION. BY JOHN FINCH. B.

There is nothing here to suggest Poe. I am convinced by pure internal evidence that Briggs is the author:

We can hardly open a book on any subject, which does not contain a dash of satire. The gravest lessons are [page 533:] now taught in a vein of humor, and all our philosophers are professed jokers. There seems to be nothing serious but fun, and. nothing funny which is not serious . . . Upon our own side of this water, we have, as yet no didactic humorists . . . (BJ, I, 50).

SAINT IGNATIUS AND HIS COMPANIONS. BY THE REV. CHARLES CONSTANTINE PISE. B.

There is here only one paragraph of original comment. It seems to me to be Briggs’ work:

We protestants [[Protestants]] are so much used to speak of Ignatius Loyola in no very devout terms . . . His work is, of course, the labor of a loving and reverent heart . . . (BJ, I, 52).

VESTIGES OF THE NATURAL HISTORY OF CREATION. B.

In the August 30 Broadway Journal Poe has a notice of the Edinburgh Review. The Review contains an article which “slashingly” condemns the Vestiges. Poe quotes from it and adds: “These opinions are just. The ‘Vestiges’ is merely a well written and suggestive romance . . . (BJ, I, 123). The author of this January review praises the book: “The faults we have discovered in this book are very’ few, and not of a character to detract in the least from its popularity” (BJ, I, 53). As a matter of fact, one cannot be sure that this reviewer has read the book. Over half of the notice is devoted to an elaboration of “. . . all reflections upon the goodness and greatness of the Creator, are, to speak of them in the mildest terms, insults to the understanding of the reader” (BJ, I, 52). This remains one of Briggs’ comment of Poe to Lowell: “The Bible, he says, is all rigmarole.“(1) A large space is occupied by two [page 534:] quotations, and the last paragraph is concerned with the absence from the title page of information as to the source of the book. I have no doubt that it is from Briggs’ pen.

* LOWELL’S CONVERSATIONS ON SOME OF THE OLD POETS. BY JAMES RUSSELL LOWELL. B.

For proof that this is Briggs’ see pages 528-9 of this section.

* AMERICAN PROSE WRITERS. NO. 3. JOHN WATERS. (?)

In “Literati,” Godey’s. July, 1846, Poe wrote of Waters:

These essays have merit, unquestionable, but some person, in an article furnished ‘The Broadway Journal‘, before my assumption of its editorship, has gone to the extreme of toadyism in their praise. This critic (possibly Mr. Briggs) thinks that John Waters . . . (GLB, XXXIII, 18; H, XV, 67).

And Poe then proceeds to “use up” the Journal critic. Earlier in the year be had been kinder t o this critic. In “Marginalia,” Democratic Review, April, 1846:

In a well written memoir of him, furnished for the ‘Broadway Journal‘, the writer says . . . (H, XVI, 94). (1)

He points out errors, but more tolerantly. The article, I feel sure, is from Briggs’ pen. It is typical of him.

* THE DRAMA. B

For proof that this is Briggs‘, see pages 529-530 of this chapter.

* ILLUSTRATED MAGAZINES. B.

On the next to last page of this issue of the Journal appeared an editorial comment on a published letter. Therein Briggs remarked:

We determined to give wood engravings in our paper with the sole view of giving encouragement to this art among [page 535:] among us . . . But we think it the only legitimate method of illustrating printed matter. It partakes of the quality of typography, and creates no incongruous feelings as the smoothness and delicacy of steel and lithographic engravings must do (BJ, I, 63).

In this notice than critic writes:

The only method of illustration that has been employed for many year in Europe, in periodicals, has been by wood cuts.(1) And it is the only style of art that can be fitly employed with letter press . . . steel engravings . . . these smooth inanities . . . (BJ, I, 61).

One finds here:

We trust that the undertaking of our artists to got out an illustrated edition of Bryant’s Poems, which we gave a hint of in our heat number . . . (BJ, I, 61).

The January 18 announcement, “An Illustrated Edition of Bryant’s Poems,” has been definitely given to Briggs. Here, in the January 25 notice, he speaks twice of Poe:

The only article in the Magazine that will ever be read a second time, except by the writers of them, is the New Arabian Night’s Tale by Mr. Poe. The idea of this tale is a very happy one, and it afforded the author a wide scope for displaying his exact knowledge and lively imagination: two qualities that we rarely find united in the same person . . . It has . . . something which is called a portrait of Edgar A. Poe. It is poor as a work of art, and something much worse as a portrait. It is a gross wrong to Mr. Poe, and a fraud upon the purchasers of the Magazine. It bears no more resemblance to that gentleman than to any other of Mr. Graham’s Contributors. But if it were much worse then (sic) it is, which is hardly conceivable, it would be amply compensated by the fine sketch of Mr. Poe’s genius, by Lowell . . . (BJ, I, 61) . [page 536:]

Note how Briggs “Misters” Poe and Graham, whom he knew slightly or in a formal way, which it is “by Lowell” for his intimate friend.

THE LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE OF THOMAS ARNOLD. BY ARTHUR P.STANLEY. B.

Only the last sentence of this, the first of the brief notices, gives any evidence:

The publishers have done the public a service in reprinting this book; and we hope to see the practice followed by other publishers, which they have here introduced, of giving the editions from which the work is republished (BJ, I, 61).

This reminds one immediately of the last paragraph of “Vestiges,” which is a plea for publishers to include such information on the title-page. As I have pointed out before, it is extremely unlikely that Poe, before his editorial connection with the Magazine, should have contributed any of these short notices. I have no hesitation in giving this to Briggs.

ONEOTA. BY HENRY R. SCHOOLCRAFT. B.

The first time that we ever saw Mr. Schoolcraft personally, was at Michilimachinas, surrounded by a company of noble looking fellows, of the race whose history is so fully elucidated in the work before us . . . Oneota is a work of a very miscellaneous character, but all its miscellanies tend to the elucidation of one subject (BJ, I, 61).

This also seems to be Briggs‘.

* THE SOUTHERN QUARTERLY REVIEW. NO. XII. B.

About this notice one can be more definite. On February 3, 1845, Poe noticed this Review in the Evening Mirror. “The Southern Quarterly Review has always held respectable rank among its contemporaries,” he says. He speaks also of the “absolute need which the South has for such an organ.” Two sentences from the Journal notice will be enough: [page 537:]

It must have been very quietly conducted, for we do not remember ever having heard it spoken of, or of seeing it in any of our bookstores or reading rooms . . . Any literary publication that narrows itself down to so small a compass as South Carolina prejudices must, of course, be exceedingly narrow in its moral dimensions (BJ, I, 61-2).

This is clearly not Poe’s; it must be given to Briggs.

THE WAIF. POEMS BY JAMES R. LOWELL. VOICES OF THE NIGHT.

This notice in also by Briggs. His comments are limited to the cover.

Something at once cheerful and mysterious, radiates from the bright arabesque designs that glow like missals of old (BJ, I, 62).

In “Illustrated Magazines” of this week, which has been definitely given to Briggs, he wrote: “. . . As the gilding in old missals” (BJ, I, 62). This notice ends in the Briggs tone:

A more dainty and appropriate style for works of elegant literature can scarcely be imagined . . . (BJ, I, 62).

DUNIGAN’S ILLUSTRATED EDITION OF THE BIBLE. B.

The illustrations . . . The illustrations . . . If the remainder should contain an many illustrations from good pictures, the work would be worth having for the illustrations alone (BJ, I, 62).

Thus begin the three sentences of this notice; it is, I have no doubt, Briggs‘.

FEBRUARY 1, 1845.

* A COURSE OF ENGLISH READINGS. BY REV. JAMES PYCROFT. B.

To name so humble an instance as ourselves, after these illustrious names may sound absurdly(1) , but no one is too humble to illustrate a principle; never could [page 538:] get through with a tithe of Robinson Crusoe, perhaps the most universally read book in the language. Many an idle hour have we loitered away in our summer days with Dr. Doddridge or one of the dramatists of Charles Second’s time, but we never could get up an intimacy with Robinson Crusoe (BJ, I, 66).

In January, 1836, Poe began a review of Robinson in the Messenger with this exclamation:

How fondly do we recur, in memory, to those enchanted days of our boyhood when we first learned to grow serious over Robinson Crusoe! — when we first found the spirit of wild adventure enkindling within us, as by the dim fire light, we labored out, line by line, the marvellous import of those pages, and hung breathless and trembling with eagerness over their absorbing — over their absorbing — over their enchaining interest (SLM, II, 127; H, VIII, 169).

Clearly this is Briggs, not Poe.

THE CHIMES. BY CHARLES DICKENS.

The Carol was a bright bubble, a perfect sphere with all the primitive colors playing upon its surface; the Chimes is nothing more than a painted shell . . . No one can read it without feeling that Dickens is a thorough good fellow . . . You(1) are conscious of having before you the first conception of the author, in its original integrity, without having been submitted to the emasculating correction of osculating prudence, or the refinements of a fastidious taste. His copy goes from his hand to the printer before the ink is dry. It is this freshness which distinguishes all his writings, that gives them one of their chief attractions . . . We have heard a good many wonderful stories of miserly hearts being melted, and churls made amiable, by the mere reading of the Christmas Carol, but we fear that the good done by the Chimes will not be as great (BJ, I, 67).

Obviously enough this is not Poe; his reviews of Dickens are all of a stature. Here one sees the critical faculties of Harry Franco operating at top speed. [page 539:]

THE NATURAL BOUNDARIES OF EMPIRES, AND A NEW VIEW OF COLONIZATION. BY JOHN FINCH (SECOND NOTICE). B.

As this book is not likely to be placed in the hands of our reading public, we give a few more extracts free it, to show more fully than our notice of last week could do, the general spirit which pervades it (BJ, I, 68).

The earlier notice has been given to Briggs.

AMERICAN PROSE WRITERS. NO. 3. R. H. DANA (SIGNED: J).

“J” is William A. Jones. In “Editorial Miscellany” for September 30 Poe quoted a letter in defence of Jones which read:

The article upon Mr. Dana, written by Mr. Jones and published in an early number of this (the Broadway) Journal . . .” (BJ, II, 183).

* THE DRAMA. B.

This column opens in Briggs’ chatty, discoursive way with a long section on Chatham street and its famous actors. The reviewer becomes upset:

We heard a very eloquent sermon a Sabbath or two since . . . who has ever troubled himself in inquirer into the nature of the mental food which is nightly administered to the young care-for-nought, who fill the pit and galleries of this theatre? . . . These boys possibly go to church once a week, but they go to the theatre every night (BJ, I, 74).

Of Bulwer’s Lady of Lyons he writes:

We could not but feel vexed that the author had so spoilt an admirable moral, am so well adapted to benefit an audience of apprentices, in misrepresenting the true story open which his drama was founded . . . The whole teaching of the play is mischievous, read the sentiment of it exceedingly mawkish. As a work of art, the Lady of Lyons does not rise above the low standard of the conventionalities of the stage (BJ, I, 74). [page 540:]

In “Marginalia,” November, 1846, Poe wrote of this play:

A hundred criticisms to the contrary notwithstanding. I must regard ‘The Lady of Lyons’ as one of the most successful dramatic efforts of modern times . . . It abounds in sentiments which stir the soul as the sound of a trumpet (GM, XXIX, 246; H, XVI, 109).

The article is clearly Briggs‘, not Poe’s; it is in the tone of the earlier drama columns.

HISTORY OF FRANCE. BY M. MICHELET. B.

This cannot fail to be a profitable publication, for even though the publisher should reap no profit, the public will. We have but one charge to prefer against the publication. It does not inform us where the translation was made (BJ, I, 77).

This complaint parallels those noticed in the January, 25 issue in Briggs’ reviews of Vestiges and Arnold’s Correspondence. Briggs, I feel sure, is the author.

FOREST LIFE. BY MRS, MARY CLAVERS. B.

The reviewer requests that Mrs. Clavers write, now that she lives in New York, a book an city life:

. . . the materials for a book are as abundant in our high-ways, as in the by-ways of the west (BJ, I, 77).

He concludes with a swat at

their high mightinesses, the editors of the pictorial magazines. It is not a little remarkable that these gentlemen are extremely fond of tales of love, seeing they generally have so little of that commodity themselves, excepting for themselves (BJ, I, 77) .

Poe does not descent to this sort of asininity. One again recognizes Briggs.

UNCLE PETER’S FAIRY TALES. (?)

There is nothing distinctive here, it is probably Briggs‘. [page 541:]

* POOR JACK. BY CAPTAIN MARRYATT. B.

We have always felt exceedingly mortified to hear him abused by our countrymen, who appear to have strangely misunderstood his character . . . There’s nothing about him but suffers a sea change . . . As a delineator of the sailor character, he has never been approached . . . We read them (his stories), not for the sake of the plot, but for the characters which they contain, as we read Shakeapeare’s historical tragedies (BJ, I, 77).

Briggs earlier in this issue reproached Pycroft for having omitted Marryatt from his Course of Reading (BJ, I, 66). In Graham’s, September, 1841, Poe wrote of Marryatt:

His books are essentially ‘mediocre‘. His ideas are the common property of the mob . . . We look throughout his writings in vain for the slightest indication of originality . . . (GM, XIX, 142; H, X, 197-98).

Briggs is the author here.

LAWRIE TODD. BY JOHN GALT. B.

If the author had accomplished no other goal by writing this book, it was enough to have made a simple-hearted old man perfectly happy . . . he looks as smiling as one of his own perennials (BJ, I, 77-8).

Briggs is recognized at once.

THE BOOK OF BRITISH BALLADS.

Mr. Hall’s book was a very costly one, and probably the best specimen of illustration in wood cuts ever published in England; and we have no doubt but that a republication of the prints would have been profitable here (BJ, I, 78).

This reminds one of the passages in the January 24 number on woodcuts. It is Briggs I thick.

MIKE MARTIN. BY F. A. DURIVAGE. B.

Such characters, if held up in a proper light, may do good after their execution, to others besides the surgeon; but when made the heroes of romance, there is too much danger that their evils will live after them (BJ, I, 78).

Again, Briggs. [page 542:]

PUNCH’S SNAPDRAGON. B (?)

MANNERS AND CUSTOMS OF NATIONS. B (?)

There is nothing distinctive about these two short notices; they are probably Briggs‘.

CHEMISTRY. BY GEO. FOWNES. B.

If such a project for impressing men with an idea of God’s power were carried out, as that proposed in the Bridgewater treatises, and other works of a similar kind, every object in creation from an ant to an elephant, and every member of every animal would require a separate volume, before the plan could be complete. But are trust that the perception of mankind is not yet so completely blunted, as to require this kind of pointing to the wisdom of God, as displayed in his works (BJ, I, 78).

This is exactly the attitude observed in Briggs’ January 25 review of Vestiges. Again, I am convinced that this notice is his.

FEBRUARY 8, 1845.

* 4. POEMS. BY SIR EDWARD BULWER LYTTON.

The core of this critique Poe made use of in “Marginalia,” the Messenger, 1849; H, XVI, 1.26, 156, from BJ, I, 1.18 (right column), 81, to 1.43 (left column), 82, omitting one sentence and paraphrasing two. There are similarities in attitude and even in expression between his review and the April, 1841, Graham’s review of Night and Morning. To point out one will suffice. After remarks on the absurdity, the ridiculousness of Bulwer’s philosophy, Poe in both quotes the passage from Helvetius.(1) The following paragraph in both reviews sets forth the same [page 543:] ideas with a few direct parallels. Graham’s:

He is emphatically one of the ‘men of passions’ . . . urged by a rabid ambition to do much . . . Something he has done (BJ, I, 82).

Poe refers in the Journal to the ‘interjectional rhetoricianism’ of Curran (BJ, I, 82), as he does in “Marginalia,” Democratic Review. December 1844 (DR, XV, 588; H, XVI, 48). Signed “P” in the Whitman copy, with corrections and marginal lining.

* 5. WHY A NATIONAL LITERATURE CANNOT FLOURISH IN THE UNITED STATES OF NORTH AMERICA. BY JOSEPH ROCCHIETTI.

In the following passage Mr. Rocchietti echoes a thought which we have expressed elsewhere; it will appear heterodox to many, no doubt, but it contains more truth than at first blush will appear evident. ‘If the English Theatre has not yet reached the Italian or French perfection, it is owing to a national religious veneration for everything written by Shakespeare; and when the English critic will not be awed by the great Shakespeare; and really Shakespeare is great, I do not see why the English Theatre will not to be as good as any (BJ, I, 83).

In none of Briggs’ Journal drama articles is there any suggestion that the trouble with the theatre is imitation of Shakespeare or the Elizabethans. The reviewer’s words, in any event, are “we have expressed elsewhere.” In the January Evening Mirror article, “Does the Drama of the Day Deserve Support?“, Poe does not single out Shakespeare in particular; but he does pointedly insist that the modern theatre will make no progress until it leaves off imitating the Elizabethan playwrights and the Elizabethan stage. This parallel is fairly conclusive evidence of Poe authorship. A few citations will furnish corroboration: [page 544:]

This is a very imposing title page, in more senses than one, for it is a gross imposition upon the reader, since the contents of the book do not offer any reasons why a National Literature cannot flourish in the United States. A work on a purely literary subject should, at least, be tolerably grammatical, but this book sets all conventional rules of composition aat defiance . . . We judge from the following remarks that among the other virtures [[virtues??]] of Italians. In a very strict regard for the fifth commandment; Mr. Rocchietti is the first gentleman we ever knew, who considered it an honor to have an acquaintance with his own mother. It is putting a very literal construction upon ‘honor thy father and mother’ . . . We have read Mr. Rocchietti’s book on account of its title, which has a very taking look; but the first page of it is enough to show that he has no qualification for the very serious labor which he has undertaken (BJ, I, 82-3).

HARPER’S ILLUMINATED AND NEW PICTORIAL BIBLE. B.

This three column review wanders in and out all over itself in the manner characteristic of Briggs. The inturnings and regressions are punctuated by sentences such as:

Our remarks about the illustrations are such as we feel ourselves bound to make. It is a work that we could not slobber it over with the unmeaning praise of those who feel themselves bound to say something kind in return for a presentation copy . . . Our strictures were written without any knowledge of these facts, and we shall not, therefore, qualify what we have written. But we feel ourselves bound to repeat . . . (BJ, I, 85).

And so in perpetuo. The remarks are concerned all with the illustration and design. Chance is taken to preach a sermon on the state of these arts in America. And the reviewer is Briggs, the patron of the arts who prided himself on his connoisseurship.

* THE MAGAZINES. B.

The tone and method here is precisely that of the earlier “Magazine” notices. The order of treatment here is the Knickerbocker, [page 545:] the Democratic Review, and the American Review, according to age. The same ranking is observed in the earlier notices: in the January 4, the Knickerbocker, the Democratic Review, etc.; in the January 18, the Democratic Review, the American Review, etc.

The article begins with a semi-facetious classification of magazines, of which this is a fair sample:

The three dollar species have pinkish coloured covers, fifty leaved,(1) and are of both sexes; while the five dollar species are generally males, have a hundred leaves, and care bluish or brown covered (BJ, I, 93).

Of the Knickerbocker:

The Editor’s Table, which has a marked idiosyncracy, has the customary set out of pleasant dishes, among which every taste is sure to find something to its liking (BJ, I, 93).

Of a sketch of a Major:

We regard this brief sketch as the most remarkable piece of writing that we have ever encountered in any Magazine, whether three dollar or five dollar (BJ, I, 93).

Briggs — who is the reviewer — has a passage as Poe:

It contains . . . a poem by Mr. Poe, which is not ascribed to that gentleman, for what reason we are at a loss to conceive, for it is a piece of verse which the best of our poets would hardly wish to disown. The prefatory remarks of the Editor are rather mystifying, and seem to tend to the disparagement of the poem as principally recommended by its versification (BJ, I,93) .

THE TREASURY OF HISTORY. B (?)

There is in this, the first of the short notices, nothing are which to base an opinion, save the adds against Poe’s having contributed [page 546:] such notices before his editorial connection was established. The notice is probably Briggs‘.

A CHAUNT OF LIFE AND OTHER POEMS. BY RALPH HOYT. PART I. B.

There is too little material, In this delicate volume to base an opinion of the author’s poetic ability upon . . . The author says that ‘these compositions appear is compliance with the wishes of many of the writer’s friends‘, We cannot conceive of a better reason for publishing a volume of poems, or one better calculated to disarm criticism (BJ, I, 94).

Many a time Poe pounced cruelly on such an excuse for publication. There is nothing more like Poe’s later review of the second part of the poem. Briggs, I feel sure, is the author.

ROME AS SEEN BY A NEW YORKER. B.

It would be idle to look for any thing new in a book professing to give the observations of a looker-on in Rome . . . We find nothing that is objectionable; saving a few remarks on classic Art . . . In external appearance it is one of the neatest specimens of book-making that we have encountered since we began to look into books, with the special design to discern their defects and merits (BJ, I, 94).

This last sentence in especial, points to Briggs.

THE WONDERFUL ADVENTURES OF BARON MUNCHAUSEN. B.

We have not met the Baron before for many a long year,(1) and we welcome him back to us now, as we would any other old friend who had entertained us in our youth (BJ, I, 94).

This, also, has the Briggs’ touch.

BLACKWOOD’S MAGAZINE, FOR JANUARY. B (?)

This one sentence notice reveals little; it is probably Briggs‘. [page 547:]

* THE SOUTHERN QUARTERLY REVIEW. B.

Southern Reviews not being articles of prime necessity, like rice and turpentine, will not be sought after with the sane perseverance that those commodities are by northern speculators. It the South would have us talk her literary productions she must send them to us. The only food that the north has ever sought at the South is food for the body(1) (BJ, I, 94).

Poe’s attitude toward the value and necessity of this review has been already quoted;(2) this notice is from the pen which produced the January 25 notice of the Review — that of Briggs.

FEBRUARY 15, 1845.

* WOMAN IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. BY MARGARET FULLER.

In “Literati“, August, 1846, Godey’s Lady’s Book. Poe wrote:

Holding these opinions is regard to ‘Woman in the Nineteenth Century‘, I still feel myself called upon to disavow the silly, condemnatory criticism of the work which appeared in one of the earlier numbers of ‘The Broadway Journal‘. That article was not written by myself, and written by my associate Mr. Briggs (GLB, XXXII, 72; H, XV, 75).

ROME AS SEEN BY A NEW YORKER. BY WILLIAM GILLESPIE. B.

There in nothing in this two column notice paralleling Poe’s comment on this book in “Marginalia“. Democratic Review, April, 1846, or in “Literati“, Godey’s, May, 1846. The whole is characterized by Briggs’ characterizing looseness. Two opinions, however, would be enough to convince me that the reviewer is Briggs. He quotes from the book and comments:

‘. . . we travel to very little purpose if we do not learn charity to every sincere belief, however it may seem to [page 548:] us; remembering that our own may seem equally so to a more enlightened order of beings‘. This in neither sense nor benevolence . . . Let us hold on to what we have, and call ignorance ignorance and delusion delusion (BJ, I, 98).

And again he comments upon Gillespie’s statement that the Roman Inquisition “is not much worse than our own Inquisition of Public Opinion”:

There has been too such nonsense uttered on this last subject. There is no country in the world, we believe, where there is less of this tyranny of public opinions than in the United States (BJ, I, 90).

* LETTERS FROM A LANDSCAPE PAINTER. By Lanman. B.

Lowell wrote Briggs:

I liked your article, for instance, on Lanman’s nonsense, it was kind and yet conclusive.(1)

The review is a perfect example of the looseness, the repetition, the irritating lack of point in Briggs’ critical writing.

HORACE GREELY. B.

We have been importuned to follow up our portraits of ‘Mi Boy‘, and the ‘Brigadier‘, with the portraits of the other prominent editors of the New York press; and we shall endeavor to do lest we be accused of partiality towards our friends of the Mirror (BJ, I, 105).

The double portrait of Willis end Morris appeared in the January 25 Journal. It does not concern us here, for in the eight line squib there is nothing of a critical nature. Here the vase is different. The series is obviously an editorial project; and the voice of the editor is clear in the sentence quoted. Briggs is definitely felt throughout the short notice:

Perhaps no paper in the country has exercised a more extended or a healthier influence, upon the public morals. No ordinary man could by the more force, of industry and [page 549:] integrity gain the position of a leading editor, in a political party, at a time like the present, when intelligence is so universally diffused, and men are so exacting of those who labor for them . . . The suspicion of eating bran-bread has gained Mr. Greeley more enemies than his eating up the substance of a dozen widows and orphans in luxurious dinners, could have done (BJ, I, 105).

* THEFTS OF AMERICAN AUTHORS. B.

In the Journal for March 8 Poe gave a summary of the history of the Longfellow War to that time. One finds there:

In the meantime Mr. Briggs in this paper — in the ‘Broadway Journal’ — did as the honor of taking me to task for what he supposed to be my insinuations against Mr. Aldrich (BJ, I, 148; H, XII, 44).

This is that “taking to task.” Poe answered in the Evening Mirror of February 17.

* THE MAGAZINES. B.

This notice of the Aristidean is in the manner of Briggs’ other magazine notices. In the Evening Mirror of February 12 Poe reviewed the same magazine. The two notices are completely opposed. Poe praises it highly, especially for, its impartiality; Briggs considers the plan “altogether admirable,” but the Magazine fails to conform. Poe criticizes the make-up — it is a facsimile of the American Review; Briggs finds it a magazine “different from the prevailing fashions in such publications.” Poe mentions no article which Briggs mentions — and the corollary holds — but one. Poe: “The critique on George James is powder wasted”; Briggs: “. . . a notice of George Jones’s(1) Ancient America . . . might have been written by Aristides himself without casting a shadow on his reputation” (BJ, I, 109). [page 550:]

A PLEA FOR WOMAN. BY MRS. HUGO KLEID. B.

Once finds here the same sort of attitude which in the review on Miss Fuller Poe called “silly”:

It appears to us that the surest way for women to gain their rights — always supposing that they do not enjoy them — is to train up their children properly, and they will sea that their mothers suffer no wrong. When women dissipate their days and nights is idle amusements, and squander their incomes in dress, while their sons are entrusted to the keeping of hired servants, or sent away from home to distant schools, they must not blame men that they have no clearer perception of what is due to women. It is true that men make the laws by which women are governed, but the women make the men who govern them (BJ, I, 110).

I have not the slightest doubt as to the identity of the author. Briggs here, as in the February 1 notice of Forest Life, praises Mrs. Clavers.

* HUNT’S MERCHANT’S MAGAZINE FOR FEBRUARY. B.

We omitted by accident, to mention this excellent periodical in our last week’s Review (BJ, I, 110).

This is clearly the editor’s voice; Poe is not yet on the staff. Briggs has an enthusiastic notice in the February 1 number of Punch’s Snapdragon; in the “Magazines” of February 8 he compares a Darley vignette to Punch. Here he has: “. . . more laughable than anything which Punch has uttered during the past year . . .” (BJ, I, 110).

THE MONTHLY ROSE. B.

The reviewer judges that this publication, put out by the Albany Female Academy, is “of such a character as might be looked for from the pens of well educated young ladies.” One of the contributors, “M. G.,” has had poetry “of an elevated character in the Knickerbocker and New World” (BJ, I, 110). Briggs, I think, is the reviewer. [page 551:]

GUANO, ITS ORIGIN AND PROPERTIES.

We could enter upon the topic con amore, but that its nature renders it unfit for extended notice in our columns . . . They have done much towards rendering agriculture a favorite pursuit among liberal minds, showing that it is not only the most useful of the Arts, for an Art it is, nor nothing, but one of the most elegant (BJ, I, 110).

This bit of ridiculousness gives the notice to Briggs.

THE EDINBURGH REVIEW, FOR JANUARY.

This notice begins with the grieved observation that

since English Reviews must be republished in this country, our a writers and publishers being precluded from undertaking the publication of American works of this class, by the absence of a copyright law, we are glad that the enterprise has fallen its such good hands . . . (BJ, I, ???)

This sort of an attitude towards English periodicals Poe never expressed; Briggs I believe to be the author.

FEBRUARY 22, 1845.

THE SANITARY CONDITION OF THE LABORING POPULATION OF NEW YORK. BY JOHN A. GRISCOM. B.

This is no review at all, but an article on prevalent conditions, the very thing Poe utterly condemned in the Graham’s January, 1842, ‘Exordium’ and elsewhere. Although there is no evidence of an external sort, there can be little doubt that Briggs is the writer. The first paragraph deals with what the present party in office occupies itself, concluding a little irrelevantly:

Gentlemen who have moved over upon Long Island, after living many years in the city, find that they make a very great saving in their doctor’s bills (BJ, I, 113).

He next cites an example: a certain advocate living in the city has had to pay from $20 to $30 for each of his children for medical attention. [page 552:] Mr. Briggs then tries to persuade this advocate to move into the country, where “by a very trifling sacrifice” he may “preserve his own and his children’s health. We know several distinguished advocates whose families live ten or twelve miles from the City Hall, who contrive to be pretty constant in their attendance at the courts (BJ, I, 113). As a matter of fang, the increased vigor derived from crossing the water and breathing pure air enables them “to accomplish quite as much labor as the time lost in travelling to and from their office would do” (BJ, I, 113). As a matter of fact it is cheaper to live in the country. As a matter of fact, Mr. Briggs suggests as a solution to the sanitation problem a mass exodus to the country — and this in all seriousness.

* AMERICAN PROSE WRITERS, NO. 5. HENRY T. TUCKERMAN (SIGNED: E)

Thomas Dunn English may be the author.

MR. HUDSON’S LECTURE ON HAMLET. B.

This heavily flippant article also must go to Harry Franco. Quotation will not here be illustrative same in great chunks; for he pushes along with some effort his effort conceptions over many a line — and no one line gives the feeling of the whole. In actual criticism, however, he says:

. . . his feature, in tones and thought, might have been written by the poet Dana. There was the same inward depth and command of the outer world, the same profound constructiveness and freedom form [[from]] were dogmatism . . . The thinking was of the right manly sort . . . (BJ, I, 123-4).

Poe never saw such power in Dana — and as for Hudson, he wrote in “Marginalia,” Godey’s, September, 1845:

Antithesis is his end — he has no other. He does not employ it to enforce thought, but he gathers thought from all quarters with the sole view to its capacity for antithetical expression . . . No man living could say what it is that Mr. Hudson proposes to demonstrate . . . (GLB, XXXI, 123-3; H, XVI, 83).

and in the Journal, December 13:

He did not favorably impress us . . . His bad points are legion — ant of concentration. — want of consecutiveness — want of definite purpose — want of common school education. — utter incapacity to comprehend a drama out of its range of mere character . . . (BJ, II, 360; H, XIII, 26-7).

* A REPLY TO PART OF THE BISHOP’S STATEMENT. BY JOHN JAY. B.

We have no expectation that Mr. Jay’s pamphlet will be the last which the unhappy trial of Bishop Onderdonk will call forth, but it is the last one we shall notice in our Journal (BJ, I, 125).

Clearly this is the Editor, Briggs, writing. One sentence in particular is corroborative:

The harm done to the community by filling the minds of the young with filthy details of scandalous transactions, and exciting their passions by the bitter personalities of men who are looked upon as heralds of peace, is greater, we fear, than the good which many Bishops will be likely to effect in many years (BJ, I, 125).

THE AGE. BY ALFRED WHEELER. B.

The freedom of the press has put an end to satire. When men have the privilege to abuse wrong-doers in plain prose, there is no inducement to insinuate abuses against them under the cover of assumed names in rhyme (BJ, I, 126).

This was not Poe’s point of view; in the Messenger, 1849, review of A Fable for the Critics he attributes the usual failure of Americans in verse satire to “the general want of that minute polish — of that skill in details . . .” and to the “colonial sin of imitation” (SLM, XV, 189; H, XIII, 166-67). Briggs I think is the author of this notice. [page 554:]

MY OWN STORY. BY MARY HOWITT.

It is womanly, gentle, and gossipping [[gossiping]]; full of little pathetic episodes, and sketches of in-door humble life (BJ, I, 126).

Those who read it will “derive as much profit and enjoyment as the others have imparted.” This notice is a companion-piece to the January 4 Briggs notice of Flowers for Children.

THE COLUMBIAN LADY’S AND GENTLEMAN’S MAGAZINE FOR MARCH. B.

The critic here is concerned only with the illustrations, except for the sentence:

The subject of the present paper is Gray, for whom Mr. Tuckerman evinces a strong fellow-feeling, and a very thorough appreciation of his character and genius (BJ, I, 126).

This I believe to be Briggs‘. He was the art editor throughout the whole of the first volume.

DUNIGAN’S ILLUSTRATED EDITION OF THE HOLY BIBLE. B.

Briggs noticed earlier numbers of this publication in the January 25 issue. In the February 8 review of Harper’s Bible, Briggs lamented the little attention which scroll-work and cover and border design had received in this country: “we have not yet been able to design a pattern for a cap ribbon” (BJ, I, 85). Here he comments:

The scroll work shows a better taste and a higher degree of knowledge in this kind of design, than we have before seen in an American publication (BJ, I, 126).

OBSERVATIONS ON THE BEST MEANS OF PRESERVING THE TEETH. BYT M. LEVEN. B (?)

This one sentence notice is non-distinctive; it is probably Briggs‘. [page 555:]

THE BRIGAND. BY G. P. R. JAMES. B.

This, we believe, is Cour (sic) de Leon, one of Mr. James’s(1) popular novels; it will probably be found quite equal, under its new title, to a new novel by the same author (BJ, I, 126).

In the January 11 review of Agincourt Briggs wrote with a triumphant air:

We also know a gentlemen, who lives in a gothic castle somewhere in New Jersey, who always enquires (sic), whenever he comes to town, which is about once a fortnight, whether there is anything new by James? The last time he asked the question, we replied ‘yes, a new title’ (BJ, I, 21).

This is not conclusive evidence, but under the circumstances it convinces me that Briggs is the author of this notice, all of which has been quoted.

TWENTY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE BLOOMINGDALE ASYLUM FOR THE INSANE. B.

The condition of the inmates of this well known Institution are(2) pleasantly set forth in this report, that the term unfortunate hardly seems applicable to them (BJ, I, 126).

This is the Briggs’ tone

March 1, 1845.

THE SANITARY CONDITION OF THE LABORING POPULATION OF NEW YORK. (SECOND NOTICE). B.

Then first notice of this work, which ended with “ (To be continued). ” was given to Briggs; so must this be.

6. PRESCOTT’S FERDINAND AND ISABELLA.

There is, for this review, no external evidence. Poe did in the Evening Mirror, February 3, a notice of the work; although it coincides exactly with this in judgment, there is no direct parallelism. Nevertheless, after oceans of Briggs it is almost impossible not to recognize the [page 556:] preciseness, the economic diction of Poe:

It is not our intention, of course, at this late day, to say anything critically of a work whose preeminent merit is as definitely settled, and as generally admitted as that of any history is existence. It would be difficult indeed, to urge anything, with a show of reason, against the book, smoldered with reference to Mr. Prescott’s intention in undertaking it . . . We are guilty of a sheer truism in maintaining that ‘Ferdinand and Isabella’ is a thorough, elaborate, tell arranged, well-toned, and original record of an epoch replete with events of importance . . . (BJ, I, 129-30).

The reviewer discuses s the value of the two go“inental historlo s of the period, They ors very brief mid soiWendieus; neither of them equalling in balk one of oar ordinary novel volumes. Their author* refer only to the most accessible materials, and main no claim to research (,Wig, I,130).

The reviewer continues to discuss at some length Prescott’s Spanish sources. I have no doubt that this reviewer is Poe.

* WOMAN IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. BY S. MARGARET FULLER. B.

This review, like the preceding one of February 15, is included in Poe’s “Literati” statement.(1) It is, however, a little more “silly” than its predecessor. Note the first sentence:

It will be a happy time for the world, but especially happy for the reading part of it, when people shall be content to accomplish, in the shortest time possible, whatever they may feel themselves called to do. TIME FLIES, should be inscribed on the door-posts of every author’s dwelling (BJ, I, 130).

* 7. GRAHAM’S MAGAZINE.

The first paragraph, thirty-one lines long, on the trend toward magazine literature, is reproduced in “Marginalia,” Democratic Review, [page 557:] April, 1846, exactly save for one singular noun made plural, and one clause made a phrase by the substitution of ‘their’ for ‘whose’: XVI, 1.18, 117, to 1.19, 118. One section of this passage is partially paraphrased from the Evening Mirror, February 12, “Magazine Literature,” which in its turn was used in “Marginalia,” Godey’s, September, 1845. There: “We need now the light artillery more especially than the Peace-makers of the intellect (BJ, I, 139). There: “We now demand the light artillery of the intellect (BJ, I, 139). There: “. . . the curt, the condensed, the well-digested,” here: “. . . the curt, the condensed, the pointed, the readily diffused” (BJ, I, 139).

8. A MANUAL OF ANCIENT AND MODERN HISTORY. BY W. C. TAYLOR.

‘The use of history is not to load the memory with fact; but to store the mind with principles‘, says Dr. Taylor, in his preface; but if this were true, it would be as idle labor to compress a world of facts into the compass that he has done in his manual; principles alone would have answered a better purpose. But it is an unmeaning sentence. The principles of history, the principles of chemistry, are facts: we have need of nothing else . . . Happily for us, Dr. Taylor has not acted on his own theory, but has given use many historical facts as could well be disposed of in 800 pages; and it is this, not his principles, which gives so high a value to his manual. There is yet no settled principle in regard to the best manner of pursuing historical studies . . . As a manual of history it will be found one of the most useful, and at the same time most readable compends, that have been published (BJ, I,142).

I feel, solely on the basis of internal evidence, that this review is Poe’s.

MARCH 8, 1845.

For the first time Poe’s same appears an the heading of this number as editor,

* WOMAN IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. (SECOND NOTICE). B.

This, really the third notice from Briggs’ pen an this book, is [page 558:] also included in Poe’s “Literati” statement.(1) These three are obviously from the same hand.

GLOSSARY OF ECCLESIASTICAL ORNAMENT AND COSTUME. BY A. WELBY PUGIN. B.

Here’s Briggs again — Briggs the art editor. The first two paragraphs ecstasize over the beauty of the illuminations, the gold and the color, “the manipulative skill,” the copious woodcuts. The next begins:

Welby Pugin has done more to review the lore of medieval art, than any other man of his time; he is a devout Catholic, as every genuine enthusiast in ecclesiastical architecture must be . . . (BJ, I, 146) ;

and proceeds to:

Rudeness of execution and a poverty of invention, a meagreness of details in imitation, distinguished the gothic style as much as profuseness of ornament, and grandeur of feeling; we cannot in a refined age imitate the barbarisms of a semi-civilized one (BJ, I, 146).

By the end of this section, by some tortuous but bland course, he has arrived at

. . . snug little chapels of ease, where pious ladies may exhibit their elegant dresses, and their husbands enjoy a quiet map of a warm Sunday afternoon, as proof that we do not depend upon the past for everything (BJ, I, 147).

He concludes:

We would advise the genius who furnishes the ornaments of a certain ‘illuminated’ work, to procure the book and study it, not only the letter press, but the magnificent scroll work and diapering of the plates (BJ, I, 143). [page 559:]

The poor genius who must have drooped beneath the weight of this volley was one Mr. Chapman, whom Briggs had already on February 8, in the review of Harper’s “Illuminated Bible” crushed sufficiently.

* 9. IMITATION — PLAGIARISM — MR. POE’S REPLY TO THE LETTER OF OUTIS — A LARGE ACCOUNT OF A SMALL MATTER — A VOLUMINOUS HISTORY OF THE LITTLE LONGFELLOW WAR.

In the first paragraph Poe dismisses the editorial “we” “for the present.” The article is signed in print “E. A. P.” Here he reviews the previews history of the Longfellow War, quoting from the first “Outis” letter in the Mirror and the replies to it; his reply in the Mirror to Briggs’ Journal article; as well as the conclusion of the first Mirror notice of The Waif, and the second defame by a friend of Longfellow from the Mirror.

In “Marginalia,” Graham’s, February, 1848, Poe wrote:

In a reply to a letter signed ‘Outis‘, and defending Mr. Longfellow from certain charges supposed to have been made against him by myself, I took occasion to assert that ‘of the class of willful plagiarists nine out of ten are authors of established reputation who plunder recondite, neglectful, or forgotten books (GM, XXXII, 130; H, XVI, 132).

The quotation is accurate from BJ, I, 150.

10. A LECTURE ON THE PHILOSOPHY OF VEGETATION. BY W. A. SEELEY.

This, the first of the brief notices, seems to be Poe’s:

Mr. Seeley’s lecture is too purely technical for popular reading . . . as smooth and flashy as a review by Macaulay . . . Mr. Seeley’s lecture is not written . . . with the copiousness of detail and illustration which we find in the lectures of Davy, but he has crowded as many facts into his lecture as we remember to have seen in the same space. We extract one sentence, merely to show how unacceptable truth itself may be made by conveying it in an unseemly shape (BJ, I, 155).

11. MOTHER’S LESSONS FOR LITTLE GIRLS AND BOYS.

LITTLE STORIES FOR LITTLE FOLKS.

It has been a too frequent fault with children’s books that they have been badly got up, but these volume [page 560:] are sufficiently elegant for the most fastidious amateur in bibliography (BJ, I, 155).

This, the second of three sentences, is fairly typical. The rhythm points to Poe.

THE GAMBLER’S MIRROR, VOL. 1, NO, 1.

GAMBLING UNMASKED

AN EXPOSE (sic) OF THE ARTS AND MISERIES OF GAMBLING. B.

Mr. J. H. Green, who is doing essential service to the cause of humanity by his labors in a field which has long remained without the husbandman, though it has been many years white for harvest. — There are few besides those whose who suffer from gambling who know to what a fearful extent the vice prevails among as . . . This dreadful vice . . . Every father who has a son just entering upon business should put one of Mr. Green’s books in his hand, and every merchant when he first receives a new clerk into his employment should see that he has a copy of the ‘Miseries of Gambling’ (BJ, I, 155).

The tone and point of view here convinces me that Briggs is the author.

THE LAST OF THE PLANTAGENETS. BY CAROLINE M. KETELTAS. B.

The gentle author of this ‘Tragic Drama’ has given her book to the world from a very amiable motive, namely, a desire to counteract the prejudices which Shakespeare’s delineation of Richard the Third has created in the minds of mankind. But her intention is better than her gift . . . The world will never forgive him his tyrannies, or forgot that he murdered the infants in the Tower. The blood of the innocent will always make an immortal outcry against those who shed it . . . Whatever doubts may be entertained of the descent from the husband of the daughter of the earl of Berkshire (which the author claims), there can be none in the world that the descent from the Poet Dryden to the author of the ‘Last of the Plantagenets’ is not only very real but very great (BJ, I, 155-56).

I am likewise here convinced of Briggs’ authorship.

THE KNICKERBOCKER. MARCH. B.

This comfortable old Magazine . . . a quaint poem from John Waters which would be beautiful if it were not quaint; and some amusing bits in the editor’s table (BJ, I, 156). [page 561:]

In the January 4 notice of the Knickerbocker Briggs singled out for comment a poem of Waters; Briggs also wrote the sketch of Waters which is the third in the American Prose Writers series. In the February 8 notice of the Briggs commends especially the Editor’s Table. In both the February 8 and the March 8 this age and seniority of the Knickerbocker is stressed.

“The fun about . . . is very Punchy” (BJ, I, 156). Briggs’ preoccupation with Punch has been noted. “We are sun that our good matured friend the editor will pardon us . . .” (BJ, I, 156). This “good natured friend” was Lewis Gaylord Clark, whom Poe settled in the “Literati,” Godey’s, September, 1846. He

is known principally as the twin brother of the late Willis Gaylord Clark . . . Mr. Clark once did me the honor to review my poems, — and I forgive him . . . As the editor has no precise character, the magazine, as a matter of course, can have none. When I say ‘np precise character“, I mean that Mr. C., as a literary man, has about him no determinateness, no distinctiveness, no saliency of point; an apple, in fact, or a pumpkin, has more angles. He is as smooth as oil or a sermon from Doctor Hawks; he is noticeable for nothing in the world except for the markedness which he is noticeable for nothing (GLB, XXXIII, 32; H, XVI, 114-15).

Poe is clearly not the critic; it is Briggs. This notice, corresponds throughout with his two earlier notices of that magazine.

12. THE SATURDAY EMPORIUM.

However it was not our intention to pronounce a panegyric . . . but to vindicate ourselves from a vile aspersion on our critical honesty which the paper contained last Saturday, in a notice of our review of Bulwer’s Minor Poems . . . Do not, we beseech of you, Messieurs of the Emporium, accuse us of making attacks upon people when we simply utter our opinions and fortify them with reasons (BJ, I, 156).

The review of Bulwer’s Poems, February 8, is Poe’s. [page 562:]

(?) 13. THE FOREIGN QUARTERLY REVIEW.

(?) 14. BLACKWOOD’S MAGAZINE.

In their brevity these two notices, are largely nondistinctive, they are probably Poe’s.

The grouping of the brief notices, according to my attributions, should be noted. The last two of the book notices are Briggs‘, and the first of the Magazine notices is his, so that his three notices occur together, at the end and at the beginning of the two parts.

* 15. PARAGRAPH WITHOUT HEADING,

signed “E. A. Poe,” on what he had to say in his lecture, “Poets and Poetry of America,” about “the indiscriminate to laudation of American books“, and the reception it received in different circles.

MARCH 15, 1845.

* 16. SATIRICAL POEMS.

The Southern Literary Messenger of March, 1849, printed a Poe notice of A Fable for Critics which incorporates, with an occasional strengthening of style, the introductory section of this Journal article: H, XIII, 1.3, 168, to 1.13, 167, from XII,1.4, 107, to 1.33, 108, The Journal review begins with the statement that in verse satiric Americans have done nothing.

We have had to be sure, Trumbull’s clumsy ‘McFingal‘, Halleck’s ‘Croakers‘, the “Vision of Rubeta‘, with its sequel, and one or two similar things, inclusive of a late volume of poems by William Ellery Channing, which we take to have been intended for satire or burlesque, on the ground that it in impossible to comprehend them as anything else. But beyond these . . . nothing (BJ, I, 161; H, XII, 107). [page 563:]

In “A Fable for Critics” (not in the section referred to above) one finds

‘The Vision of Rubeta’ by Laughton Osborne, is probably our best composition of the kind? but, in saying this, we intend no excessive commendation. Trumbull’s clumsy and imitative work is scarcely worth mention — and then we have Halleck’s ‘Croakers‘, local and ephemeral . . . Park Benjamin has written a clever address, with the title ‘Infatuation‘(1) . . . some matters we have produced, to be sure, which were excellent in the way of burlesque — (the Poems of William Ellery Channing for example).  . . (SLM, XV, 189; H, XIII, 165).

The Graham’s review of Quacks of Helicon, August, 1841, says we have done nothing in satire “Trumbull’s clumsy poem and Halleck’s ‘Croakers,’ to the contrary notwithstanding” (GM, XIX, 90; H, X, 182). The Godey’s June, 1848, ‘Literati” article as Laughton Osborne places his ‘Vision of Rubeta’ at the top of am satires; mentions “Trumbull’s clumsy work . . . and Halleck’s ‘Croakers’ which is very feeble . . .”; and asks, “but what is there besides?” (GLB, XXXII, 271-2; H, XV, 47).

Signed “‘P” in the Whitman copy.

17. A CONTINUATION OF THE VOLUMINOUS HISTORY OF THE LITTLE LONGFELLOW WAR — MR. POE’S FARTHER REPLY TO THE LETTER OF OUTIS.

18. INAUGURAL ADDRESS. BY JAMES J. MAPES.

Indeed we have rarely read an essay in which the writer has contrived so completely to overshadow himself in the greatness of his theme. Mr. Mapes is too much of an enthusiast in the cause of science to waste his own, or his hearer’s time, with any superfluous flourishes of rhetoric, or by introducing in a practical discourse any extrinsic subject. He is plain, driest, and impressive . . . The importance . . . is but imperfectly understood (BJ, I, 173).

The style is Poe’s; Briggs never wrote like this.

(?) 19. CRUIKSHANK’S OMNIBUS.

Although Cruikshank’s name is very nearly a synonym for fun, yet his designs are not pure fun, for life the words of genius they use tinged with a dash of melancholy (BJ, I, 174). [page 564:]

This three line notice does not give grounds for a positive statement; it seems, however, probably Poe’s.

20. THE DEMOCRATIC REVIEW FOR MARCH.

The first articles on Tyler, which we hope is from the pen of the editor, because it will induce us to read his political speculations hereafter, if it be, is the best paper in it; and may be read with pleasure by any one, without regard to political prejudices, merely for the easy strength of the style and the confident impudence (we know no other word that will exactly express our meaning) of its tone (BJ, I, 174).

Again the Poe ring; I have no doubt that he is the author.

MILITARY MAXIMS OF NAPOLEON. B.

We cannot allow this opportunity to escape us of rebuking the aristocratic and exclusive spirit . . . which is manifested in the dedication of this book; of making a distinction between the officers and the rank and file of the army . . . If we should ever again be involved in war, all this nonsense will, of necessity, be abolished, for it is idle to expect that the citizens of the republic will serve in either department of the public defence, to be treated as more automata, and be excluded from all the honors and emoluments which their valor might win. God grant that the experiment may never be tried; but it requires no spirit of prophecy to foresee, that under the present system of conferring office, disgrace and defeat would be the result of every engagement with an enemy (BJ, I, 174).

One observes here the attitude of Briggs’ review of Hints on the Reorganization of the Navy. Over half the notice is given over to this point, I think, is Briggs‘.

MARTIN’S ILLUSTRATED FAMILY BIBLE. PART 2. B. (?)

. . . a chef d‘oeuvre in art worthy to accompany a chef d‘oeuvre in publication, as this Bible is (BJ, I, 174).

Typical is this phrase of the two sentence notice, which, I think is probably Briggs‘. [page 565:]

HUNT’S MERCHANT’S MAGAZINE. B.

The article which the reviewer selects for attention is one on the abuses in the consular system. Briggs discussed this problem in relation to literary men in the “Introductory.” The General temper of the review strongly suggests Briggs:

But these offices might be increased to a very great extent, and the country would be a gainer, as well as political adventurers. Since Mr. Polk will be freed from the troublesome business of securing his re-election, we trust he will look about him to see what abuses of the government he can rectify, and we have no doubt of his attention being called to the subject of the Consular agents to begin with (BJ, I, 174).

21. THE NEW WORLD.

But for fear of disparaging the ‘Broadway Journal’ . . . Not to mention the more solid qualities which render him a good editor, editorially considered, Mr. Eames is one of our most vigorous and original thinkers; and unlike original thinkers whom we have in our mind’s eye, he has the faculty of imparting to his readers, through an accurate and exceedingly graceful style, a full consciousness that he does think berth vigorously and originally, and keens wall what he is thinking about — a very great deal to say of any man, as times go (BJ, I, 174).

This, I think, is Poe’s.

Note here also, if my judgements be true, that Poe and Briggs short notices, beginning with “Mapes’ Address,” are grouped in the pattern observed in the last number.

22. LITERARY INTELLIGENCE.

In the January 25 issue of the Journal there appeared a brief column under this heading, containing four announcements with no comment. The column under study now is quite a different thing; it is in the “column” vein of the later Editorial Miscellanies and the “Doings of Gotham”: [page 566:]

. . . the aim, however, as regards externals, being to reconcile the utmost possible cheapness with a proper attention to the mechanical execution . . . The editorial conduct of the whole is entrusted to a gentleman whose fine taste and great ability are matters not to be questioned . . . The introductory essay is in Irving’s best style; and contains some rich veins of thought and eloquence of a high order . . . (BJ, I, 174).

Briggs does [[not??]] write like this.

MARCH 22, 1845.

EOTHEN, OR TRACES OF TRAVEL.

If the days of ‘cheap and nasty’ literature are not ended, we have proof before us that the day of cheap and elegant literature has at least dawned (BJ, I, 176).

So begins this review — and Briggs is suggested even in the first half of the first half of the phrase. This suggestion progresses steadily into conviction an one reads the whole. The first half of the notice is a watery rant about what American publishers publish, which says, actually, nothing; and, after introducing, as is Mr. Briggs’ wont, a personal example, he concludes off key and beside the point, which is, as I have indicated, largely non-existant [[non-existent]]. The rest of the review is an ecstatic but superficial rhapsody on the book. For examples take:

. . . it shows very plainly their own want of intelligence or want of faith in the intelligence of the people, the Native Americans, for whose benefit they publish their Countess Faustinas and Wandering Jews . . . Legally speaking, book-publishers have an unquestionable right to put forth only such books as they like, as a baker has an unquestionable right to sell nothing but sour bread, and we have no doubt that there are people all ready to snub us up, for pretending to insinuate that anybody, but especially publishers of books, should be called to account for doing what the law allows. To submit to the snub, merely begging the privilege of hinting that there are two kinds of law, the law of God, and the law of man, and that it is possible to break one while you observe the other . . . It puts life into the mummies that have been brought to us from the Orient, and puts words into the mouths of the mummies from whom we have been trying to gather knowledge of [page 567:] a country that we cannot visit (BJ, I, 177).

* 23. MORE OF THE VOLUMINOUS HISTORY OF THE LITTLE LONGFELLOW WAR — MR. POE’S THIRD CHAPTER OF REPLY TO THE LETTER OF OUTIS. (SIGNED: E. A. P.

* WOMAN IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. B.

We have encountered, during the past week, some half a dozen notices of our review of Miss Fuller’s book, which strangely misrepresent the opinions we expressed of that lady (BJ, I, 182).

The three preceding review of this book have been demonstrated to be Briggs‘.(1) There is here another indication of Briggs:

There is one kind of employment. . .which we hope to see introduced among them — wood engraving. It has already been done in England and France (BJ, I, 183).

In the January 25 article, “Illustrated Magazines,” and elsewhere since, Briggs advocated strongly the supplanting of steel engravings, etc., by woodcuts, an art much practiced in England and France.(2)

THE AMERICAN REVIEW. MARCH.

This political journal contains but one political article . . . it will probably be quite as acceptable to the majority of its readers as though it contained more (BJ, I, 193).

Twenty of the twenty-nine lines of this notice are concerned with the lack of political interest among the American people.

The majority of the people, in spite of mass meetings and daily papers, care hardly more about the characters of their rulers than do the subjects of the sultan, The last election of our President is sufficient proof of this. Those she knew Mr. Polk best gave him the fewest votes; at the most distant points from his own home he mustered the greatest number of adherents (BJ, I, 183). [page 568:]

He next lists a few of the papers, including one by William Jones, who seems to have been a friend of Briggs, and

a very able article an our light house system from H. I. Raymond, which we regard as the most important is the magazine. The subject is very justly handled, and the improprieties of our system forcibly exposed (BJ, I, 183).

The reviewer, I think, is Briggs.

THE SOUTHERN LITERARY MESSENGER. B (?)

This article, which gives a resume of the Messenger’s history, one would naturally expect to be by Poe. There is something, however, off-key. My guess would be that Poe perhaps supplied Briggs with the information, but that the latter wrote up the notice:

At the beginning of the seventh month(1) one of the present editors of the ‘Broadway Journal’ made an arrangement to edit the ‘Messenger’ . . . Its subscribers are almost without exception the elite, both as regards wealth and intellectual culture, of the Southern aristocracy . . . The influence of the work . . . has always been exerted, we sincerely believe, in behalf of the chivalrous, the tasteful and the true . . . In the aristocracy of its friends it in quite an anomaly in the literary world.

Mr. Minor is about to make some important improvements in the work, with a view of extending the circulation among ourselves here in the North and East, and we shall not fait. to do our part in this endeavour. The New York agent is Mr. John Bisco . . . (BJ, I, 183).

STABLE ECONOMY. BY JOHN STEWART. B.

This “well-known work . . . on the Management of Horses” has been enlarged by A. B. Allen. This gentleman [page 569:]

has been engaged in the business of rearing and breeding horses on his own far, for the past ten years, and in his recent trip to England he had abundant opportunities by personal inspection of gaining much valuable information on every subject relating to the horse. He has also availed himself of all the discoveries made by the eminent philosophers . . . (BJ, I, 184).

The reviewer — Briggs — emphasizes the fact that the work is illustrated with woodcuts.

THE TREASURY OF HISTORY. B (?)

Here there is no evidence in the two sentences of the notice. The fact that it is surrounded by Briggs notices leads me to consider it probably his.

THE MONTHLY ROSE. NO. 3. B.

Of this periodical — put out by the Albany Female Academy — Briggs wrote in the February 15 Broadway Journal:

A neat little pamphlet of sixteen pages, containing some prettily written essays and, verses, of such a character as might be looked for frm the pens of well educated young ladies (BJ, I, 110).

The present notice begins in the same way:

A very neatly printed little Magazine of 16 pages, of the precise quality that might be expected from its contributors; gentle, romantic and purely written (BJ, I, 184).

Unmistakable is the Briggs tone of the last sentences:

Charming days of youth and innocence, when young ladies can find amusement in writing and reading romantic tales about Knights and Castles. How it is managed in the bustling city of Albany with the scream of Steam Engines all the time tearing away at ones’s ears, we do not comprehend. But everything is possible with the young and innocent (BJ, I, 184). [page 570:]

THE COLUMBIAN MAGAZINE FOR APRIL. B (?)

There is nothing distinctive here save the emphasis an embellishments. It is perhaps Briggs.

24. MRS. R. S. NICHOLS.

We quote at random a stanza or two, not hoping, of course, to convey any just idea of the skill manifested in the general conduct of the poem . . . The rhythm here is anapaestic — by no means an usual one with us, and requiring much art in the handling (BJ, I, 190).

On the last page of the next number of the Journal, just under an editorial note to the affect that a rumor announcing “that Edgar A. Poe is to become editor of ‘The Aristidean’ . . . is a mistake,” one finds:

Erratum. In our notices last week of a poem by Mrs. Nicholls (sic), we spoke of her rhythm as anapaestic. We meant to say dactylic, of course (BJ, I, 207).

This notice, the first of a group of three in a column headed “Miscellany,” is, I feel sure, Poe’s.

MR. HUDSON. B.

We are rejoiced to learn that this new lecturer on Shakespeare, has met with sufficient encouragement to induce him to commence another course of lectures in New York . . . it is encouraging to know that there is a sufficient number of people in our community grilling to patronize genius, when genius will tabs the pains to make itself known . . . Such was the peculiar effect of his dreading enunciation an our nerves, that after sitting fifteen minutes in the sound of his voice, the narrow in our bones began to dissolve, our teeth were scat an edge an by the filing of a saw, and chills crept over us like an ague fit; to have listened a moment longer would have induced paralysis, or something worse; and we did not recover our usual serenity until we had been jolted in an omnibus from the Stuyvesant Institute to Bowling-green . . . He is a quack without question; [page 571:] such a quack as Shakespeare himself was, and such a quack as every man, of genius must be, who is not a regular practicioner (sic) (BJ, I,191).

Whatever our reviewer means by this last sentence excapes [[escapes]] me. Whatever he intends, it is not the sort of thing Poe would say. Poe referred to Hudson several times, always contemptuously.(1)

The Knickerbocker for May quoted from this article the description of the offset of Hudson’s voice and enunciation. In “The Magazines,” Broadway Journal, May 10, Briggs wrote:

Our remarks, which the Editor of the Knickerbocker has quoted, were want to apply solely to Mr. Hudson’s mower, and not to his matter . . . we were strongly impressed with a feeling of respect for Mr. Hudson’s opinions . . (BJ, I, 297).

I have so hesitation in assigning this piece to Briggs.

25. THE SATURDAY EMPORIUM.

As he did in his Marsh 8 notice, Poe flatters this paper along until the last sentence; at that point, he slaps its face:

It so happen we have never seen more than three numbers of it, the last of which contained an imputation upon our editorial honesty, which we felt bound to answer (BJ, I,191). (2)

He proceeds to summarize the “unequivocal compliment” paid the magazine in the former notice, which the Emporium regards as “doubtful.”

However, The Emporium says it prefers the calumet of peace, to the tomahawk of war. Very good. Then put this in your pipe and smoke it; and when you copy anything from our columns again, have the kindness to give us credit for, it (BJ, I, 191). [page 572:]

MARCH 29, 1845.

THE AMBER WITCH.

. . . two works so perfect in their kind as an Eothen and the Amber Witch . . . Anything savoring of dispraise in respect of this beautiful work be entirely new and startling; for we believe no critic has yet had the temerity to risk his own reputation by under-valuing a production whose merits . . . Not only is the moral(1) of the narrative destroyed by the denouement,(2) but the moment we begin to suspect that she will be rescued from the flames, the conviction that we are reading a true narrative begins to be shaken. It is, unquestionably, a more delightful romance for ending as it does . . . (BJ, I, 193).

Briggs, I feel, is the reviewer.

THE CHILDREN OF MOUNT IDA. BY MRS. CHILD. B.

Here I have not the slightest doubt that Briggs in the reviewer.

Mrs. Child has, unconsciously we suspect, drum the portrait of a perfect woman, a wife and mother, is OEnome, a very different being from the Glumdalclitches who form the ideal of Miss Fuller’s women (BJ, I, 193).

In four articles Briggs has expressed horror for Miss Fuller’s “Glumdalclitches.” The logic here may be questioned a little:

The clairvoyance of OEnome is not in the least startling can on Mount Ida; it harmonizes with the old Greek legends, as naturally as though it had sprung from Greece, proving that the fables of her mythology had a deeper foundation to rest upon than the chimeras of barbarous ignorance (BJ, I, 193).

Again.

Mrs, Child is too pure and gentle a spirit to harrow the soul by pictures of remorse and suffering, but she has employed an incident of daily occurrence . . . to produce a catastrophe (BJ, I, 193). [page 573:]

THE LIBRARY OF COMMERCE. BY FREEMAN HUNT. B.

To find again Briggs’ irrelevant. He begins with perfect property, listing the contents; one, however, ‘Commercial Delusions‘, sets him off:

A company was projected in Wall Street, the past winter, to which several men of capital embarked, which was hardly more explicit in its objects than one . . . (BJ, I, 193-94).

He goes as far astray as:

If the mania for “companies” to do every thing, should ever return to this city, we hope to see a company started for keeping the streets free from mud (BJ, I, 194).

POPULAR LECTURES ON ASTRONOMY. BY M. ARAGO. B.

If M. Arago should ever chance to see a copy of this work it would, probably, cause him as such surprise as the last comet did, which caught him napping (BJ, I, ???).

We find again Briggs the sportive. He gambols frivolously about the proposition that it the earth should become a satellite of a court, the “Earthities” would not be destroyed; and he concludes with a sentence which excludes Poe, I think, from consideration as the author:

But we trust it will be a long time before any comet shall think of annexation with an eye to our own planet; and we have no doubt that even our friends at the South, as zealous they are (sic) for annexation of another kind, would sturdily oppose this (BJ, I, 194).

Another passage points straight to Briggs:

Perhaps we are a little too strict in regard to the publication, of other people’s property without their permission, but there are so few in the country who err in this manner, that we may be forgiven for erring on the same side (BJ, I, 194).

Poe was as anxious as Briggs four copyright laws; but Briggs has been waging a regular campaign in the Journal — and this is Briggs’ writing. [page 574:]

THE WORLD IN A POCKET-BOOK.

An exceedingly neat pocket volume, the contents of which fulfill the promise of the title, imposing as it is. One of the chapters, ‘The Genius of the world’ is quite novel in its way. The time from Moses to 1840 is compressed into five pages; all the genius of the world in so small a space! Alas for genius! (BJ, I, 194).

This, I think, also in Briggs‘.

* 26. IMITATION — PLAGIARISM — THE CONCLUSION OF MR. POE’S REPLY TO THE LETTER OF OUTIS.

“E. A. P.” is printed at the end of this article.

* 27. THE NEW COMEDY. BY MRS. MOWATT.

Anna Cora Mowatt wrote Poe on a Thursday evening:

(I regret that) I have not a more legible manuscript of the Comedy to submit to your perusal — . . . your criticism will be prized — I am sorry that they could not have been made before preparations for the performance of the Comedy had progressed so far.(1)

At the end of the review we finds:

The above remarks were written before this Comedy’s representation at the Park, and were based on the author’s original MX . . . (BJ, I, 205; H, XII, 121).

Poe’s criticism of Mrs. Mowatt in “Literati,” Godey’s, June, 1846, is a concise version of this review with many verbal, echoes aside from the direct copyings which follow: H, XV, 39,11.16-26, exact, with slight stylistic changes, from XII, 1.33, 119, to 1.7, 120; XV, 29, 11.29-31, exact from XII,116, 11.9-12; XV, 30, 11.15-18, exact, with slight stylistic changes, from XII, 120, 11.18-22. [page 575:]

APRIL 5, 1845.

UNDINE AND SINTRAM. B (?)

This notice, consisting of a few lines of comment and a chapter quoted, seems to me probably Brigg’:

A story so begot and so brought forth, must needs be wild, mysterious, and startling. An aura like a witch-element pervades the pages, and as we turn over the leaves a sensation of terror is imbided, seemingly, at our fingers’ ends. The tale opens with the following wild and startling chapter (BJ, I, 209).

* 28. HUMAN MAGNETISM. BY W. NEWNHAM.

“Marginalia,” Graham’s, November, 1846, reproduces about half of this review with some stylistic changes: H, XVI, 1.8, 113, to 1.9, 114, from XII, l.24, 121 to 1.30, 132; XVI, 115, 11.11-14, from, XII, 123, 11.7-12; XVI, 113, 11.1-5, loosely from XII, 123, 11.1-6. Signed “P” in the Whitman copy.

29. A HISTORY OF THE SOCIETY OF FRIENDS. BY WILLIAM R. WAGSTAFF.

One recognizes, here the decision and methodical air of a Poe notice:

This is an attempt to give a History . . . in a form adapted to popular tastes, although we infer from the author’s preface . . . The present volume relates solely to the . . . The author intimates that in a second part . . . The book is distinguished by the external beauty peculiar to all the publications of Messrs. Wiley & Putnam (BJ, I, 210).

(?) 30. BLACKWOOD’S MAGAZINE FOR MARCH.

There is not enough here to pronounce judgement on; I should say it is probably Poe’s, surrounded as it is by Poe reviews. [page 576:]

31. REPUBLICATION OF THE LONDON LANCET.

This is an edition issued Burgess & Stringer, of the January, February and March numbers of the Lancet. The critic says that it embodies “the most authentic and valuable medical and surgical information to be found, periodically in any work in the world (BJ, I, 210). The review of Newnham’s Magnetism, which has been shown to be Poe’s, ended:

Those who wish to example all sides of a question would do well to dip into some medical works of authority before forming an opinion on such topics. In the case of Miss Martineau we beg leave to prefer to the ‘London Lancet‘, for March, 1845, page 215 of the edition published by Burgess & Stringer (BJ, I, 210).

It seems extremely unlikely that anyone in the Journal office would have been so familiar with the magazine except its reviewer. I give the notice to Poe.

32. THE PALAIS ROYAL. BY JOHN MANCUR.

In “Marginalia,” Godey’s, August, 1845, Poe wrote of this book:

Here is a book of ‘amusing travels’ which is full enough of statistics to have been the joint compositions of Messieurs Busching, Hassel, Camabitch, Gaspari, Gutsmuth and company. Spun out line Wollaston’s wires, or the world in the Peutingerian Tables (GLB, XXXI, 30; H, XVI, 71).

The notice reader

Some of Mr. Mancur’s novels have been very naturally mistaken for those of James, to whom both in manner and in his material generally, he bears even too remarkable a resemblance . . . ‘The Palais Royal’ is . . . a novel of far more than ordinary interest and value. Its great defect is the total lack of originality (BJ, I, 210). [page 577:]

The two, though not parallel — save in the phrase “interest and value” are compatible. Poe has, am know at least, read the book. I would assign Poe the Journal notice solely on the basis of internal evidence.

A LETTER TO THE BOSTON ASSOCIATION OF CONGREGATIONAL MINISTERS. BY THEODORE PARKER. B.

On January 25 Briggs reviewed St. Ignatius and His First Companions. The first sentence harm, in the April notice, reads:

‘Liberal Christianity‘, according to the showing of Mr. Parker, does not differ very materially from the liberalism exercised by the followers of St. Ignatius (BJ, I, 210).

The notice continues to [[be ??]] facetious in a Briggs vein:

We shall not be surprised . . . to hear next that the raised numeric in Charleston has been rebuilt and converted into an Inquisition on the conservative principle of the good old times; or that some of our liberal friends have been indulging in the old fashioned pastime of an auto da fe (BJ, I, 210).

Briggs, I think, is the author.

? 33. LECTURE ON IMMIGRATION

Neither this one sentence notices nor the next.

? 34. THE TAKING OF NABOTH’S VINEYARD. BY DAVID LEE CHILD.

Two sentences In length provides any basis for a decision; Poe be the author.

35. NEW ORLEANS AS I FOUND IT. BY H. DIDIMUS.

This is the title of one of the freshest, most piquant, we altogether most agreeable volumes which have been written by an American — for an American we take the author to be . . . professedly, his design is that of sketching now incidents . . . but these incidents are in fact but a nucleus for very amusing gossip of all kinds, intermingled not unfrequently with some matter of far loftier pretension than gossip. The book is that of a thoughtful, polished and well-informed man (BJ, I, 210-11).

This, I think is Poe’s. [page 578:]

36. LOOK TO THE END. BY MRS. ELLIS.

The older members of the party serve only as make-weight to the true design, which is that of depicting the influence to be exercised over a youthful and highly sensitive mind by the beautiful in itself . . . The danger to be apprehended from too habitual an indulgence even on the sentiment of Beauty — that is of physical beauty — is imagined to be counteracted by encouraging an appreciation of moral loveliness. In all this there is much to be disputed — but no one can dispute the interest . . . (BJ, I, 211).

This notice also I give to Poe.

? 37. LE LIVRE DES PETITS ENFANTS.

There is no evidence; it may be Poe’s.

* EXAMINATION OF A REPLY TO HINTS ON THE REORGANIZATION OF THE NAVY. B.

The lieutenants of the navy receive some home thrusts in this well-written pamphlet, in which author stoutly and rightly reasserts the claims of surgeons, as well as of all other officers, to a definite rank in the service (BJ, I, 211).

Briggs reviewed the Hints in the Journal of January 25; he had some editorial comment about it in the February 1; and in the March 15 notice of Military Maxims, he again expressed indignation about the ranking system. This notice I consider his.

DON FROILA AND HIS TWO DAUGHTERS. BY AGNES STRICKLAND. B (?)

“This tale is published in an exceedingly neat pocket volume . . .” (BJ, I, 211). Compare the first sentence in the March 29 nature of The World in a Pocket-Book, “An exceedingly neat packet volume (BJ, I, 194). That notice, it was decided, is Briggs‘; that also is probably his. [page 579:]

ALNWICK CASTLE, WITh OTHER POEMS. B ?

The merits of Mr. Halleck have been long definitely settled, at least so far as regards the poems now before us. We have only to wish that in writing a new poem he would give us an opportunity of praising him anew (BJ, I, 211).

Poe had had little praise for Halleck; perhaps this is Briggs writing.

(?) 38. THE BOOK OF THE ARMY. BY JOHN FROST.

. . . one of our most judicious and indefatigable compilers . . . entitled to high consideration for an much originality as is consistent with history — for thoughtful comment . . . Its object is thoroughly detailed in its title . . . It is designed as a pendant to the ‘Book of the Navy’ (BJ, I, 311).

This is probably Poe’s, as is the next notice,

(?) 39. ELEMENTS OF ENTOMOLOGY. BY W. S. W. RUSCHENBERGER.

. . . Re-arrangements from the valuable text of Milne Edwards and Achille Comte (BJ, I, 211).

40. KEEPING HOUSE AND HOUSE-KEEPING. BY MRS. S. J. HALE.

This is an ingeniously conceived and well managed narrative of ordinary life — without any thing of that pure namby-pamby, or rather pure drivel which we have been ashamed to see applauded, of late days, on the ground, forsooth, of being natural or truthful. Mrs. Hale is a woman of great force of thought and remarkable purity of style. She writes invariably well (BJ, I, 211).

Poe’s November l Journal notice of Alice Ray begins: “Mrs. Hale has long been distinguished as one of the purest and most vigorous writers in America (BJ, II, 256). This notice, I feel, is Poe’s.

? 41. THE BOOK OF COMMON PRAYER, AND ADMINISTRATION OF THE SACRAMENT.

The last sentence of this notice parallels that of the April 12 review of Anthon’s Greek Grammar. Here: “. . . the binding exceedingly [page 580:] durable and neat” (BJ, I, 211) ; there: “It in published in the peculiarly neat and durable form . . .” (BJ, I, 236) . The notice is perhaps Poe’s.

? 42. THE HISTORY OF FRANCE. BY M. MICHELET.

This notice is not distinctive; it may be Poe’s.

* 43. PLAGIARISM — IMITATION — POSTSCRIPT TO MR. POE’S REPLY TO THE LETTER OF OUTIS.

This, again, is signed in print, “E. A. P.“.

MR. HUDSON, THE NEW LECTURER ON SHAKESPEARE. B.

We have already awarded is Mr. Hudson the claim of a Genius. His peculiarities are very striking, and his manner provincial to the extremest degree (BJ, I, 216).

In the Journal for March 22, as we have seen, Briggs wrote:

. . . it is encouraging to know that there is a sufficient number of people in our community willing to patronize genius, when genius will take than pains to make itself known . . . Mr. Hudson’s very peculiar manner . . . the peculiar effect of his drawling . . . the worst provincial drawl that war wounded a human ear (BJ, I, 191).

Briggs, then, is also the author of this.

* 44. PROSPECTS OF THE DRAMA. MRS. MOWATT’S COMEDY.

We are enabled, however, to say but little either in contradiction or in amplification of our last week’s remarks — which were based it will be remembered upon the original MS. Of the fair authoress, and upon the slightly modified performance of the first night . . . In what we then said . . . in one respect, perhaps, we have done Mrs. Mowatt unintentional injustice (BJ, I, 219; H, XII, 124).

“Last weeks remarks” have been shown to be Poe’s.(1)

Signed “P” in the Whitman copy.

* 45. GRAHAM’S MAGAZINE.

Mrs. Osgood contributes the best poem she has yet written — a more exquisitely graceful thing (Grace is Mrs. Osgood’s quoendom in which she reigns triumphant) we have rarely seen (BJ, I, 220). [page 581:]

In “Literati,” Godey’s, September, 1846:

It is (in) this irresoluble charm — in grace — that Mrs. Osgood excels any poetess of her country — or, indeed, of any country under the sun (GLB, XXXIII, 126; H, XV, 98).

In “Marginalia,” Messenger, April, 1849;

I can never read Mrs. Osgood’s poetry without a strong propensity to ring the changes upon this indefinite word ‘grace’ (SLM, XV, 220; H, XVI, 144).

In every review of Mrs. Osgood Poe emphasized her grace.

We regard this little song — ‘Where Hudson’s Wave’ — ‘Woodman Spare that Tree’ — and ‘Near the lake where Droops the Willow‘, as undeniably four of the truest and sweetest poems . . . ever published in America . . . (BJ, I, 220).

In “Marginalia,” Messenger, April, 1849, Poe points out those three as superb poems, unexcelled by any other American poem in “quiet grace and unaffected tenderness” (SLM, XV, 219; H, XVI, 140). In his comments on the sketch of General Morris the Journal reviewer reveals a point of view peculiarly Poe’s. General Morris’ only fault is that he makes

too many and too devoted friends, who now and then do him injury by permitting their personal feelings to appear above the current of their critical opinion. We really believe that but for this fault in the General he would have attained even a higher rank in the literary world than he actually possesses . . . the nature of that merit which is peculiarly General Morris‘(1) own, has a tendency to increase the evi1 effect on which we comment — for this merit is that of rich and vigorous simplicity — a quality of an others in they world the least likely to be estimated at its full value. The world is too apt to think the critic guilty of exaggeration in praising [page 582:] with enthusiasm that which (however effective) appears easy of execution; — and simplicity has always this air (BJ, I, 220).

There is no mistaking Poe in this notice.

46. THE LADY’S BOOK.

There is an indication of durability about the Lady’s Book which is not to be mistaken — an air of quietude — of simplicity — and therefore of strength . . . the vigor which is always inseparable from originality of away kind. We do not mean to say, and we do not suppose that Mr. Godey means to assert, that the ‘Lady’s Book’ belongs to a high order of literature, but of its kind it is our nearly perfect as can well be. It addresses itself principally to ladies, and addresses these as ladies wish to be addressed. The secret of its wonderful, because long-continues success, is tact (BJ, I, 220).

It is impossible not to be convinced that this, like the Graham’s notice is certainly Poe’s; yet in the absence of external evidence of any sort, it cannot be given to Poe with finality.

? 47. THE MONTHLY ROSE.

? 48. THE LADIES’ GARLAND, AND CABINET OF THE DAUGHTERS OF TEMPERANCE.

For these two there is no evidence; Poe may be the author.

THE KNICKERBOCKER FOR APRIL. B.

contains several good articles, two or three very good ones, and we good ones. No will let the readers of the magazine find out for themselves. We do not remember that we ever looked at the editor’s table without finding something to laugh at; and very rarely any thing to pish at (BJ, I, 221).

There is immediately perceptible a difference between this and the preceding notices, at least between this and the two first in this group. The praise of the Editor’s Table parallels the earlier Briggs’ notices of the Knickerbocker. The rest of the notice is devoted to an architectural quibble with “Mr. C (lark). ” The notice, I feel fairly sure, is Briggs“. [page 583:]

MAGNIFICENT BOOKS. B.

This article on the Travels of Maximilian, Prince of Wied and Catlin’s Indian Portfolio should not really be here considered at all. It is not a review of the books, but of the illustrations. Obviously it is the work of Briggs, the art critic.

APRIL 12, 1845.

* 49. A DICTIONARY OF GREEK AND ROMAN ANTIQUITIES. BY DR. CHAS. A. ANTHON.

For proof that this is Poe’s see pages 187-189 of the Messenger chapter.

MICHELET’S HISTORY OF FRANCE. B.

One of the great merits of this unique history consists of a vein of intense national feeling that pervades the entire work . . . His sole idea of a country, in his history, is France; his sole idea of France is Paris. In this he is a genuine Frenchman — a Parisian of Paris; and his history is all the better for it. It is what it professes to be . . . While the novelist strives to give his tale the appearance of history, by solemn generalizations and pedantic descriptions, M. Michelet adopts the true novelesque style in his history, rapid, brilliant, and minute. He is the most picturesque, imaginative, and familiar of historians. There is a picture in every page, and something to startle the thoughts in every sentence (BJ, I, 225).

“Unique” Poe used only to mean possessing intrinsic unity; “picturesque” he used to mean forming a picture. The use of “novelesque” and “startle” (a favorite word with Briggs) is also unlike him — as is the style of the whole notice. Poe’s precise logic would not have permitted him to force a “vein” to “pervade the entire work.” Briggs, I think, is the author.

(?) 50. A PLAIN SYSTEM OF ELOCUTION. BY G. VANDENHOFF.

We must defer to another time a fink notice of the merits of this very excellent work . . . a just appreciation in the public of a work of unpretending utility (BJ, I, 226).

Poe is probably the author of this brief notice. [page 584:]

(?) 51. SHELLEY’S GRAVE AND OTHER POEMS. BY JOHN TOMLIN.

A very neat and unpretending volume, containing much of the truest poetry (BJ, I, 216).

This two sentence notice of Poe’s Jackson, Tennessee, friend is probably Poe’s.

(?) 52. THE CHEMISTRY ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE PHYSIOLOGY. BY G. T. MULDER.

A very important book . . . Its objects are fully explained is the title (BJ, I, 226).

Again, this three line notice is probably Poe’s.

53. A GRAMMAR OF THE GREEK LANGUAGE. BY CHARLES ANTHON.

. . . a translation and abridgement from the various grammars of Kuhner — presenting a compend of all that is essential for the student. The work has the novel feature of frequent reference to the Sanscrit and other cognate languages — without which reference no Greek grammar can be considered complete. This is decidedly, for American Students, the best book of its class extant. It is published in the peculiarly neat and durable form which distinguishes all the classical works of its author (BJ, I, 226).

The Poe tone is mistakable. Briggs did not have the knowledge of Greek which Poe had, or claimed to have.

* 54. PHRENO MNEMOTECHNY. BY FRANCIS FAUVEL GOURAUD.

For proof that this is Poe’s, see the Messenger chapter, pages 189-91.

MARTIN’S ILLUSTRATED FAMILY BIBLE. B (?)

We must repeat once more the testimony which we have already borne to the merits of this edition of the Bible, which we are happy to find has been sustained by the universal opinion of the press (BJ, I, 226).

There appeared in the March 15 Journal a brief notice of this Bible, to which the present reviewer refers. The earlier notice, it was decided, is probably Briggs‘; that decision, of course, is in effect here. The [page 585:] sentence quoted does not, for some reason, sound like Poe. The following sentences confirm the impression. The discussion of puffery is in the vein of the “Introductory”

It is, unfortunately, quite a matter of course to puff an illustrated edition of the scriptures . . . But me shall never lend our columns for any such mercenary purpose . . . There is delight is the more contemplation of the typography (BJ, I, 226).

THE TREASURY OF HISTORY. NO. 4. B ?

Among the cheap historical publications of the day, it assumes a very favorable position (BJ, I, 227).

The diction here sounds unlike Poe. The notice, except for this, is non-distinctive; it my be Briggs‘.

55. VOYAGES ROUND THE WORLD.

The two volume are very comprehensive — indeed complete — and embody a vast amount of invaluable knowledge, quite independent of that rich interest which always appertains to books of travel — especially of travel by sea (BJ, I, 227).

This, I feel, is Poe’s.

56. LIFE IN ITALY. BY HANS CHRISTIAN ANDERSEN.

We doubt if in the there exists in the same compass, for anything(1) like the same price, the same amount of excellent light reading . . . The Improvisation is a peculiar work, and effects the reader with a singular sense of the new in letters: — this feeling results from our want of acquaintance with the Danish turn of thought and expression (BJ, I, 229).

This I am convinced is Poe’s.

* 57. THE MAGAZINES.

The American Review:

With the exception of ’Some Words with a Mummy’ which has the misfortune to be written by ‘one of us‘, there [page 586:]

is only one really bad article in the number . . . (BJ, I, 235).

No one on the Journal staff would have dared write that sentiment save Poe himself. The rest of this section “does up” the other article, the whole executed in Poe’s best vein.

The Southern Literary Messenger:

The review of Miss Barrett will be well received by the unpoetical alone. The critic merely shows that her poetry is no poetry to him. She is unquestionably, in spite of her numerous faults, the most glorious woman of her age — the queen of all female poets . . . The Critical Notices are brief, and to the point — although in many particulars we disagree radically with the opinion of the critic . . . If not written by Dr. Nichol, this work (Vestiges of Creation) is st least worthy that(1) gentleman (BJ, I, 235).

Briggs is his January 25 review of Vestiges hazarded no guess as to who the author might be.

The Democratic Review:

. . . a characteristic article by Hawthorne, — a semi-critical essay in which he has prolonged the lives, to the present day, of all the dead authors . . . (BJ, I, 235).

Hunt’s Merchant’s Magazine:

. . . Contains the full amount of valuable statistical matter which we have been accustomed to find in its pages, but it contains one article, the spirit of which should, in some form, always be found in a work intended, like this, for the eyes of the merchant, have created a mercantile immorality, and given rise to what are called debts of honor . . . It is a subject of great astonishment that men will not learn from this anomalous class of debts . . . (BJ, I, 236). [page 587:]

This pithiness, this diction has not been found in any of the earlier Hunt’s notices. There can be no doubt, considering the internal-external evidence presented above, and the wealth of corroboration, that this article is Poe’s.

*58. THE ANTIGONE AT PALMO’S.

Poe made use of a part of this article in “Marginalia,” Graham’s, December, 1846; H, XVI, 1.26, 119, to 1.25, 120, exact from XII, 1.28, 131, to 1.26, 132. Signed “P” in the Whitman copy.

(?) 59. LITERARY INTELLIGENCE.

There is very little criticism in this column,. It seems, however, probably Poe’s; for example, the author’s opinion about the London Lancet, correspondent with Poe’s. Poe comments:

It is full of valuable natter. No medical periodical equals the Lancet (BJ, I, 587).

APRIL 19, 1845.

* 60. ACHILLES’ WRATH.

Mr. Dinneford, manager of Palmo’s, has been infuriated by Poe’s review of the Antigone; for, Poe having been put on the free list, Dinneford expected a favorable notice. Poe begins this article by printing the outraged note which accuses Poe of having asked to be put on the free list, and then of having out of pure ill-feeling pronounced animadersions on Dimeford. The note is addressed to “Edgar Poe Esq. &c. &c. &c. Author of The Raven” (BJ, I, 251; H, XII, 136). Poe contemptuously tosses him over the moon and proceeds to a sermon on puffing in return for passes.

Signed “P” in the Whitman copy.

NIGHT: A POEM. B.

The reviewer opens with a quotation from Alexandre Dumas: Men, not man, invent. Every one in his turn takes the things his fathers knew [page 588:] and arranges them in now combinations:

‘Quant a la creation (sic) complete d‘une chose, je la cross impossible. Dieu lui meme (sic), lorsqu‘il crea (sic) l‘homme, ne put on (sic) n‘osa point 1‘inventer: il le fit (sic) a son image’ (BJ, I, 252).

All of these errors can scarcely be blamed on the printer, I think; Poe in quoting from the French is more meticulous. The reviewer after copying this sentiment comments:

We should be unwilling to charge the author of the poem before us with the profane sentiment of the audacious plagiarist whom we have quoted, but it is very plain that the two authors entertain very similar feelings respecting des choses connues de ses peres (BJ, I, 252).

The distressing thing about this notice is its evanescent in indeterminateness; it always just misses its intention. The notice has no point. It does not get anywhere. The general tone and style may be illustrated by this passage:

The author of Night has chosen an infelicitous title for his poem, for the work ‘Thoughts’ must pop into the minds of his readers as soon as they open his volume; yet it would have mattered nothing if he had chosen a different one, for the same title would have inevitably suggested by the poem itself. We can safely pronounce the author a good man and a scholar, which is higher praise than can be bestowed upon every good poet . . . As an example of the author’s art and feeling . . . (BJ, I, 252).

The critic, I think, is Briggs.

61. IMAGINATION AND FANCY. BY LEIGH HUNT.

Here again is one of those reviews which no one would deny to Poe;(1) and yet, actually, there is no real evidence of an external sort. [page 589:] Poe reviewed Hunt later in the same year. He has some comments on a review of this book in the Messenger. Though the ideas in both the later notices are exactly those advanced here, they are presented more badly with less of appreciation for Hunt’s positive merits. Sections of this review have already been quoted.(1) A few more quotations will be convincing enough:

His exquisite sensibility to all impressions of the beautiful his scholarship (by no means profound, yet peculiarly available) ; and his general vivacity of intellect — render him an admirable critic in all points within the compass of these qualities . . . In a word the forte of the author of Rimini in taste — while his foible is analysis. Of this latter quality — absolutely indispensible in all criticism that aims at instruction or reformation — he is radically deficient. He himself feels his own ability to construct a fine poem, and is content to be assured of the validity of the principles upon which he constructs it, without caring to understand the ultimate character of the natural laws (of the heart and intellect) — upon which the validity of the principles depends . . . The reply to all this is that Thomas Babington Macaulay is not a man of genius. He in a critic, but no more than a critic . . . The merit or demerit, in fact, int quite independent of any such understanding — the truth, after all, seeming to resolve itself into this — that the valve of the comprehension of which we speak, is in the direct ratio of the creative ability which employs or takes advantage of the comprehensive (BJ, I, 252-3).

In the July 19, Journal review of Hazlitt Poe said:

we would rank him . . . very far before Leigh Hunt, who was a dexterous but unanalytical, and somewhat confused prosodist . . . Macaulay . . . a man who, if he has not written the best criticism ever penned, has at least shown the capacity to write them (BJ, II, 28). [page 590:]

* 62. PHRENO-MNEMOTECHY. BY FRANCIS FAUVEL GOURAUD.

For proof that this is Poe’s see the Messenger chapter, pages 189-191.

(?) 63. THE FARMER’S AND EMIGRANT’S GUIDE BOOK.

We have rarely seen a book that so fully redeemed the promise of its title . . . one of the most novel among the recipes is directions for making bread out of pine bark (BJ, I, 253).

This is probably Poe’s.

? 64. VOICES OF THE NIGHT. BY H. W. LONGFELLOW.

A neatly printed edition, in pamphlet form, of a book too universally known to require any comment (BJ, I, 253).

This is all of the notice; it to probably Poe’s.

(?) 65. THE MYSTERIES OF LONDON.

We have not read this work, but if any thing(1) could induce us to do so, it would be the name of the translator . . . who has the rare art in his translations, of preserving the spirit of the original language, while he invests it with his own graceful and elegant style (BJ, I, 253-54).

This is probably Poe’s, as is the next.

(?) 66. THE WARWICK WOODS. BY FRANK FORRESTER.

. . . the popularity of the author’s name will doubtless give them a wide circulation among readers in general (BJ, I, 254).

APRIL 26, 1845.

THIRTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE TRUSTEES OF THE PERKINS INST1TUTION AND MASSACHUSETTS ASYLUM OF THE BLIND. B.

One recognizes here Briggs’ sociological propensities. The notice, I think, is his. [page 591:]

This exceedingly interesting report is from the pen of the philanthropic Director of the Asy1um . . .These things were, perhaps, not further(1) beyond her comprehension than of the persons who talked to her about them . . . She could hardly have fallen into better hands for her own happiness, or for the benefit of mankind. It in very apparent that important hints in education may be gathered in watching the advancement of a mind like Laura Bridgman’s from tonal darkness into the light of comparative day (BJ, I, 261).

This is no review at all; it is a religio-sociological essay.

THE DIARY OF LADY WILLOUGHBY.

The Diary of Lady Willoughby is framed on the exact plan of the Amber Witch, and is quite as successful a composition in its way, although it is entirely unlike that remarkable production (BJ, I, 267).

Briggs, it will be remembered, reviewed the Amber Witch in the March 29 Journal. One finds here his custom of introducing personal illustrations in a chatty tone:

A lady of our acquaintance, who is no great devourer of books, by the way, took it up by accident, and declared that she had never been so bewitched by a book before. It is evidently the work of a pious, tender-hearted mother (BJ, I, 267).

Briggs, I think, in the critic.

HISTORY OF GERMANY. BY FREDERICK KOHLRAUSCH. B (?)

THE LIFE AND INSTITUTE OF THE JESUITS. BY REV. FATHER DE RAVIGNAN. B (?)

NO CROSS, NO CROWN. BY WILLIAM PENN. B (?)

These three very short notices are not distinctive; however, since they appear in a group of what seems to be Briggs notices, it is likely they are his. [page 592:]

FRANKENSTEIN. BY MRS. SHELLEY.

MIDSHIPMAN EASY. BY CAPTAIN MARRYATT. B.

Except for the last sentence — general in character — there is no criticism of these two numbers of the Library of Standard Novels. Like Briggs’ notice of Eothen(1) this one is devoted to a lecture on the sins of publishers. The tone is the same:

It is greatly to be deplored that publishers are too seldom influenced by any other motives in putting forth books, than mercenary considerations, but books should not be regarded as mere merchandise, and no publisher should allow his name to appear on a book of pernicious tendencies, who wishes to preserve the character of a good citizen, or establish himself in a profitable business (BJ, I, 257).

The sentence structure is Briggs‘. So, I am convinced, is the notice.

67. PRINCIPLES OF FORENSIC MEDICINE. BY WILLIAM A. GUY.

We believe that before the publication of Guy’s book, there was no convenient text-book . . . The voluminous work of Becks, although highly elaborate and meritorious, was for obvious reasons unadapted to the purposes of the student — nor, indeed, as a manual for the legal or medical practitioner,(2) could it be considered as suitable in any respect . . . the main object has been to afford results — general conclusions — in a word, to make a practical and useful book (BJ, I, 267).

This, I believe, is Poe’s.

68. THE WAVERLY NOVELS. BY SIR WALTER SCOTT.

The first consideration forcing itself on the mind while looking over such a volume as this, is, what might have been thought, before the invention of printing . . . The most astounding miracles of Mesmerism, if fairly examined, would be found scarcely more really marvellous than this. We observe that unusual care has been taken in getting up this edition (BJ, I, 267-8). [page 593:]

This, I believe, is Poe’s.

69. A PHRASE BOOK IN ENGLISH AND GERMAN.

The manner of arranging the phrases differs materially from any other phrase book that we have seen (BJ, I, 268).

This also I give to Poe, as well as the next.

70. THE CHRONICLES OF PINEVILLE.

It is still a disputed point among certain critics whether America has produced a humorous writer, and we have heard the author at the book before us cited as the best example of a humorist that America can boast. But the Author of Major James’ Courtship is a comic rather than a humorous writer. The merit of his sketches lies in their felicity to the names described, and not in their wit and humour (BJ, I, 268).

71. THE MAGAZINES.

The Lady’s Book:

Mr. Grund is one of the most remarkable men we have ever met, — possessing a wonderful faculty of observation, and a memory which stands in little need of Professor Gouraud.(1) His analytical power is also great, and as a critic few men are entitled to greater consideration . . . The Gazelle of the Menagerie‘, by Miss Gould is particularly happy . . . In the Editor’s Book Table there are some very just remarks on the subject of taking out copyright for Magazines (BJ, I, 268).

The critic discusses this question, in the Poe style, for sixteen lines.

Graham’s:

Grund is commended again. Cooper has a sketch “worthy the best days(2) of its author”; and Lowell has a poem containing “some very noble images” (BJ, I, 269). [page 594:]

The Columbian:

“Of the poems the best, by very far” is one by Mrs. Osgood.

The Southern Quarterly Review:

In the review of the ’Spirit of the Age‘, although ‘Orion’ is heartily appreciated (and it is indeed one of the noblest poems of this or any age) some injustice is, upon the whole, done to its author. Mr. Horne is not, as supposed, the writer of all the papers in the ’Spirit of the Age‘. Very many of them are neither his, nor worthy of him (BJ, I, 269). (1)

In the Graham’s March, 1844, review of Orion Poe said it was “some of the noblest, if not the very noblest poetical work of the age” (GM, XXIV, 141; H, XI, 275). Briggs wrote to Lowell, accusing Poe of all sorts of heresies; “He has no reverence for Homer, Shakespeare, or Milton, but thinks that ‘Orion’ is the greatest poem in the language.“(2) There is no doubt in my mind that Poe is the author of this column.

72. MISCELLANY.

There is almost nothing critical here, but it seems to be Poe’s. First he quotes three of “the most wretched puns of any periodical in the Union,” after which he copies “Impromptu to Kate Carol,” a four line bit written for a word-play. John G. Varner has demonstrated, conclusively, that Mrs. Osgood is the author of this poem.(3) “Kate Carol” was one of Mrs. Osgood’s pen-names. This year, 1845, was the year in which began Poe’s attachment to her. In the columns of the Journal they addressed poems to each other. This addressing of Mrs. Osgood’s poem to herself seems to have been a bit of fun. There in a paragraph on Murdoch, a [page 595:] friend of Poe:

He comprehends, we think, the whole rationale of elecution as well as any man of his time, and his physical powers enable him to give effect to his conceptions (BJ, I, 271).

MAY 3, 1845.

* ALNWICK CASTLE, WITH OTHER POEMS. BY FITZ-GREENE HALLECK.

In the Whitman copy of the Journal this critique is assigned in Poe’s hand, to “J. R. Lowell.”

On February 15, 1845, Lowell wrote Briggs:

Halleck, I see, is about to publish a new edition, which I should like to write a notice of if you have made no other arrangement.(1)

A month later Lowell wrote again: “If I can get a copy of Hawthorne’s Tales, I will write of Him. Remember Halleck.“(2)

73. THE PRISONERS OF PEROTE. BY WILLIAM PRESTON SNAPP.

This is a book at all points entertaining, and now and then imbued with a vivid and terrible interest. We quote some instances of Mexican vagruney and audacity: . . . if these things were not known to fact, we should speak of them as capital romance . . . (BJ, I, 284).

This, I think, is Poe’s, as well as the next.

74. REMARKS ON AN ADDRESS DELIVERED BEFORE THE NEW ENGLAND SOCIETY OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK. BY GEORGE P. MARSH.

The manner of writing and punctuating the title-page of this pamphlet, is everything.(3) Obviously there is here a printing error. The remarks are certainly not by George P. Marsh. They are by some person anonymous, and are levelled against Mr. M. — a point [page 598:] which it is just as well to understand. The treatise its pungently written, but we disagree with it throughout in its estimate of Mr. Marsh’s eloquence (BJ, I, 284).

* 75. TABLE-TALK. PART I. BY WILLIAM HAZLITT.

In an October 21. Journal review of Hazlitt Poe wrote:

Of the first series of the Table Talk we spoke so fully in a previous number, that it will be needless to say anything of the second . . . (BJ, II, 210).

76. AMERICAN FACTS. BY GEORGE PALMER PUTNAM.

We cannot understand the notice of the author in affixing to a work of this kind such a ponderous joke as the absurd review of British poets which appeared is the North American Review a year ago . . . It is attaching too much importance to that paltry jealousy or ill nature of an anonymous scribbler to make his niaiseries the subject of national recriminations (BJ, I, 284).

I give this to Poe without hesitation, as well as the next notice.

77. COUNT LUDWIG, AND OTHER ROMANCES. BY CHARLES DICKENS.

Count Ludwig is one of the most remarkable of its author’s productions, as containing not the slightest evidence of his peculiar and brilliant genius (BJ, I, 284).

? 78. THE APOCHRYPHAL (sic) NRE TESTAMENT.

? 79. HISTORY OF GERMANY. PART II. FREDERICK (sic) KOHLRAUSCH.

There is no evidence supplied by these two very short notices; they my be Poe.

(?) 80. SPECIMENS OF ANCIENT ORACULAR AND FIGHTING ECLIPILES. BY THOMAS EWBANK.

This supplement to the large work on Hydraullics by Mr. Ewbank, will render that treatise the most learned and perfect one on that branch of science in existence (BJ, I, 285).

There is little of real distinction about this notice; however, it is probably Poe’s. [page 597:]

* 81. THE MAGAZINES.

The Aristidean.

Some of the papers are exceedingly good — precisely what Magazine papers should be — vigorous, terse, and independent . . . There is a long review or rather running commentary on Longfellow’s poems. It is perhaps, a little course, but we are not disposed to call it unjust; although there are in it some opinions which, by implication, are attributed to ourselves individually, and with which we cannot altogether coincide (BJ, I, 285).

This, of course, is conclusive evidence.

? 82. POPULAR LECTURES.

This paragraph on the last page discusses Mrs. Caudle’s lectures from Punch. There is nothing here on which to base a decision; it may be Poe’s.

MAY 10, 1845.

83. THE FIRST THREE BOOKS OF HOMER’S ILIAD. BY CHARLES ANTHON.

This review is typical of Poe’s method in handling this sort of thing. A series of quotation will be suggestive enough:

This is one of the series of ’School and College Classics’ which have attracted so general an attention, first, from their comprehensiveness, and admirable adaptation to their objects, and, secondly, from their punctilious accuracy and beauty of typographical execution . . . The volume contains all of the Iliad which is usually read at school, as preparatory to a college course — sufficient to furnish the student with the principles of Homeric translation and analysis. The text is, in the main, that of Spitzner . . . There is that of Richard Payne Knight, with the digamma restored according to his views. In fact, it is by no means improbable that this secondary text is at least a close approximation to the ancient orthography of Homer . . . The commentary, as in all this series of classics, is peculiarly full and explicit — proceeding on the sole ground which is admissable in matters of scholastic instruction — [page 598:] the ground that the scholar is absolutely ignorant, and has need of information at all points, however seemingly trivial . . . The materials of the Notes are derived, chiefly from . . . The Glossary is separated from the Notes — a very judicious arrangement . . . one of the most important additions to classical literature which this country or any other has produced (BJ, I, 295).

Briggs, it appears, did not have enough knowledge of such matters even to bluff such a notice from the prefatory material in the volume under review. I have no doubt that this is Poe’s mark.

LETTERS FROM NEW YORK. BY L. M. CHILD. B.

. . . the letters of Mrs. Child make a direct appeal to every human heart . . . Nothing will so disarm reserve as confidence; ice can alone be melted by heat; hatred and anger must be overcome by love and kindness. Bitter, sarcastic writers can never hope for popularity, or at least love. We rarely see one of Swift’s essays carried about as a pocket companion, but the good natured genial writings of Goldsmith are oftener bound as pocket volumes than the works of any other author . . . The sympathies of men are more wide than we are apt to believe. The stories of washerwomen, of streetsweeps are little beggar children, interest us beyond the most elaborate histories of merely official personages (BJ, I, 296).

One immediately recognizes the Briggs tone — the diffuseness — the pompous utterance of platitudes at a premium — the informal essay with the book under review as a starting point. And one wonders a little whether or not this little homily was meant for Poe.

THE PENCIL OF NATURE. BY H. FOX TALBOT. B.

The nature of this work suggests that its reviewer would be Briggs, the Journal’s art editor. It is a book of scenic photographs. This suggestion is strengthened to conviction by the style itself. Over [page 599:] half the review is given over to describing the scenes. This sentence, at the end of a description of an English haystack, is typical:

The sunshine which falls upon it is English sunshine; it has lighted up an object three thousand miles away and now shines as brightly on our desk as it did a yea ago in Somersetshire, or in pleasant Kent, for the locality of the haystack is not given (BJ, I, 296).

Poe was incapable of this wretched sort of sentimentality.

* SAUL, A MYSTERY.

In “Marginalia,” Messenger, May, 1849, Poe has a paragraph which begins with a quotation from The Morning News:

‘The Reverend Arthur Coxe’s ’Saul, a Mystery‘, having been condemned in no measured terms by Poe, of ‘The Broadway Journal’ . . .

This quoted bit ends with a jingle on Poe. Poe comments then:

. . . I say that at the data of its first appearance, I had expressed no opinion whatsoever of the poem is which it refers . . . Whenever a book is abused, people take it for granted that it is I who have been abusing it. Latterly I have read ’Saul’ and agree with the epigrammatist, that it ‘will do’ — whoever attempts to wade through it. It will do, also, for trunk-paper (SLM, XV, 294-5; H, XVI, 154-55).

In the Journal “Editorial Miscellany” of September 6, 1845, Poe printed this quotation which he later, as we have seen copied in “Marginalia.” The first four lines of his comment are practically the same in both paragraphs. In the Journal, however, he says without qualification:

We have expressed no opinion whatever of ’Saul’ . . . Mr. Coxe has written some very beautiful poems, and ’Saul’ may be one of them for any thing we know to the contrary. As yet we have not found time to read the poem — which, to say the truth, is an exceptionally long (BJ, II, 143; H, XII, 243). [page 600:]

The reviewer is Briggs. He says: “In our next ‘Journal’ we shall review the poem in full” (BJ, I, 297) . A contributing outsider would of course, not use that tone; and we know of no one else on the staff who contributed literal reviews.

NEVER TOO LATE. BY CHARLES BURDETT. B.

One of the simple little tales of every day life, written to enforce a pious lesson, which always proves popular . . . (BJ, I, 297).

Briggs is the author I think.

THE MAGAZINES. B.

The Knickerbocker presents its customary variety in its table of contents . . . and its Editor’s Table the usual variety of pleasant gossip (BJ, I, 297).

It is Briggs who, since January, has been praising the Knickerbocker and its “Editor’s Table. It is here that he regrets Mr. Clark misunderstood him on Hudson.(1) Two articles by Hudson he praises with enthusiasm.

. . . in leaving Horace Walpole out of his Catalogue. This is like leaving Shakespeare out of the list of English dramatists, or Fielding from the Catalogue of Novelists (BJ, I, 297).

Poe seems to have had little admiration for Fielding. In the Graham’s review of Charles O‘Malley he wrote: “For one Dickens there are five million Smolletts, Fieldings, Marryatts, Arthurs . . .” (GM, XX, 189; H, XI, 90).

It is worth an infinite number of such Essays as that by Pycroft, a cheap edition of which has recently been published. The review of the ‘Vestiges of Creation’ is the most vigorous attack that has get been made on that much abused and much bepraised work . . . and infinitely more exciting than any of the ‘mysteries‘, not excepting Saul, that have recently been published (BJ, I, 297). [page 601:]

Briggs reviewed Pycroft’s essay in the February 1 Journal, Vestiges in the January 25, and Saul in the May 10.

No magazine in this country has yet done anything for the interest of art, bid there is a growing appetite in the American people for works of artistic excellence (BJ, I, 298).

This sentence again reminds one of Briggs; the notice is his.

84. BLACKWOOD.

It contains eight papers of varied excellence, but all good . . . is piquant exceedingly, and North’s Account of Dryden (although disfigures with the usual carelessness and rant of Wilson) is an admirable essay. The continuation of the papers called ‘Confessions of an Opium Eater’ is better, we think, than the original — which was a lie throughout. There is yet room for a book was opium eating, which shall be the most profoundly interesting volume ever penned. It would be written, however, by no De Quincy (BJ, I, 298).

This, I feel sure, is Poe’s. There is in the Whitman copy, scribbled in the margin by this notice, an undecipherable word. The handwriting may be Poe’s. Significant, perhaps, is the fact that this notice is not included under the column headed “Magazine,” which we have seen to be Briggs.

EOTHEN. B.

This article, weighing the question as to whether or not Eothen is a hoax, seems to be Briggs‘. There are echoes of the March 22 Briggs’ review. Here one finds:

. . . this brilliant book of travel . . . the beauty of styles the light-hearted novelesque manner . . . the absence of such statistical matter as we generally find in books of travel . . . Eothen brings the east to us more vividly than any other eastern traveller has ever done (BJ, I, 298). [page 602:]

In the March 22 notice:

. . . the most brilliant book of travels . . . the superior brilliancy of Eothen . . . master of so fine a style and so lively as imagination . . . It is just the work to put into the hands of those who have overburden their memories with the lifeless statistics of other travellers in the East . . . It puts life into the mummies . . . The liveliness of fancy and elegance of style (BJ, I, 177).

The whole thing is fairly typical of Briggs.

85. PROFESSOR GOURAUD.

The following extract from the Professor’s lecture on Memory, is a remarkable instance of fluent writing in a foreigner, who, three or four years since, was almost ignorant of our language. M. Gouraud’s style is somewhat too luxuriant for these days of classic severity, but it has wonderful ease as the production of a foreigner (BJ, I, 299).

These remarks preface a long extract. Poe reviewed Gourand’s work in the April 12 and 19 Journals. This, I believe, is his.

April 12 and 19 Journals. This, I believe, is his.

MAY 17, 1845.

HEADLONG HALL AND NIGHT ABBEY.

THE FRENCH IN ALGIERS. B.

The author is neither a poet nor a cynic, but a good. natured scholarly gentleman, who is rather disposed to laugh the world out df its errors than to sneer at them; he is neither as startling nor as amusing as Swift, but he is infinitely more friendly and winning. One would not care to be on terms of intimacy with the Dean, but the most sensitive of men would never fear the genial humor of the guests of Headlong Hall (BJ, I, 311).

This puts cans at once in mind of Briggs’ remarks as sneering, satire, and Swift is the May 10 notice of Mrs. Child’s Letters.(1) Again one wonders whether he were not talking at Poe. [page 602:]

The French in Algiers is new and startling;(1) the name of Lady Gordon on the title-page, the ingenius [[ingenious]] translator of the Amber Witch,(2) should alone be sufficient . . . (BJ, I, 311).

This, I have no doubt, is Briggs’:

* 86. OLD ENGLISH POETRY. — THE BOOK OF GEMS. EDITED BY S. C. HALL.

For proof that this is Poe’s see page 146-7 Messenger chapter. Signed “P” in the Whitman copy, with a marginal comment, perhaps in Mrs. Whitman’s hand.

THE COMPLETE HISTORY OF IRELAND. BY MR. O‘HALLORAN. B ?

MARTIN’S ILLUSTRATED FAMILY BIBLE. NO. 4. B?

These two very brief notices are scarcely distinctive; however, both are concerned with the typography and illustration of the books, and as the earlier notices of the Martin’s Bible have been given to Briggs, it way be that these an his.

? 87. ESSAYS ON THE PRINCIPLES OF MORALITY. BY JONATHAN DYMOND.

If it contained but the one chapter on the Morality of Legal Practice; it would be enough to entitle it to a wide circulation (BJ, I, 314).

This my be Poe’s.

? 88. THE PRINCIPLES OF CHRONOTHERMAL SYSTEM OF MEDICINE. BY SAMUEL DICKINSON.

Likewise this, little more than an announcement with a promise of a notice “at length hereafter,” may be Poe’s. [page 604:]

* 89. THE MAGAZINE.

The Southern Literary Messenger.

Taking as a point of departure “a caustic review of Captain Wilkes’ Narrative of the U. S. Exploring Expedition,” the reviewer begins with a withering attack on Wilkes:

More ludicrous instances of incompetency were newer afforded . . . Neither his discretion nor his education would have entitled him to the command of a fishing smack . . . His grammatical blunders — the grossest obtusity combined with the most ineffable conceit and self-sufficiency (BJ, I, 316).

Poe reviewed pamphlets connected with this expedition as early as the Messenger days. In Graham’s, September, 1843, he reviewed a brief account by Wilkes of the expedition. There Poe took particular pains to show that the glory was due Reynolds, not Wilkes.(1) In the fourth letter, June, 1844, of “Doings of Gotham,” he has a paragraph expressing his disgust with Wilkes.(2)

A criticism on they Poems of Christopher Pease Cranch is not particularly to our taste (BJ, I, 316).

In “Literati,” July, 1846, Poe wrote:

About two years also a volume of ‘Poems by Christopher Pease Cranch’ was published by Carey & Hart. It was most unmercifully treated by the critics, and much injustice, in my opinion, was done to the poet (GLB, XXXIII, 18; H, XV, 69).

Poe is a little confused about the date. The volume referred to in “Literati” is that reviewed in this, Messenger of May, 1845. The review is a palpable imitation of Poe’s method — and does not do the poet justice. [page 605:]

It is better, however, than the commentary on Miss Barrett which appeared in a late number of the Messenger, and which, as far as we can learn, excited no less decided a feeling universal contempt wherever it was perused by those who are themselves poetical (BJ, I, 316).

The reviewer continues for ten lines to express “the unutterable loathing” the review causes in him and to make clear his admiration for Miss Barrett. In the April 12 “Magazines,” it will be remembered, Poe gave vent to his displeasure with the Messenger critic on this score.(1)

Godey’s Lady’s Book:

This paragraph is largely a listing of contents; the last sentence, however, is interesting:

In the ‘Editor’s Table’ is a page of comment on the death of Mrs. Willis — a page which we read with an interest the most painful — the most profound (BJ, I, 316).

Graham’s:

We copy in full a characteristic poem of the most truly graceful, delicate, and yet impassioned of American poetesses — Mrs. Osgood (BJ, I, 317).

In connection with the “Magazines” of April 5 it was shown how frequently Poe said just this of Mrs. Osgood.(2) This notice of Graham’s is largely on Hoffman’s sketch of Griswold:

. . . does Mr. C. no more than justice, either in regard to his acquirements or character as a man (BJ, I, 316).

Harrison prints from the Griswold Memoir a letter from Poe to Griswold which ends: “See my notice of C. F. Hoffman’s sketch of you.“(3) [page 606:]

In his discussion of the Poe-Griswold controversy, Killis Cambsll prints this letter. He has compared the original with than printed by Griswold, and has printed in italics those passages inserted by Griswold. This reference to “my notice” is italicized. Griswold describes the latter as “without date“, but Campbell says it bears the post mark “New York, April 19,“(1) a whole month before the printing of the notice. This implies, I suppose, that Griswold considered the notice Poe’s. That this entire column is Poe’s is clear.

MAY 24, 1845.

LIFE OF GODERLY WILLIAM VON LEIBNITZ. BY JOHN M. McKIE. B.

All of this four column article save twenty-five lines, that is fourteen fifteenths of the article, retails laboriously the life of Leibnitz: Briggs is instantly suggested by this observation. And two sentences alone are sufficient to give that suggestion strong basis:

He was permitted, priest-like, to comprehend the counsels of God, that he might reveal to his fellow mortals the wisdom and benevolence of our heavenly Father . . . There is room in the Anglo-Saxon race for thus happy influence of these kindly feelings which lead us on all occasions, to view the man of another clime as a brother, and deserving at our hands that regard to which humanity, civilization, and Christianity give him a title (BJ, I, 328).

There is a particularly vague sentence:

There are two views to be taken of the life of man — first, as he makes one identity, standing out in distinct lineaments of society (sic) — next, as that identity sends out its roots into society in different directions, both to prop itself and strengthen the social framework (BJ, I, 328).

I have not the slightest doubt that Briggs is the author of this nonsence [[nonsense]].

* 90. POEMS. BY WILLIAM LORD.

The grossest plagiarisms, indeed, abound. We would have no trouble, even, in pointing out a score from our most unimportant self (BJ, I, 330; H, XII, 156).

Poe proceeds then to point out plagiarisms from “Lenore,” “Al Aaraaf,” “The Haunted Palace,” and “The Raven.” In “Marginalia,” Democratic Review, April, 1846, Poe rspeate the pun he here makes an Lord, and says again that there is nothing in the volume which belongs to Lord.(1) In “Literati,” August, 1846, he repeats that Lord’s “Niagara” is a description not of the falls, but of himself.(2) In “Marginalia,” Messenger, May, 1849, he reprints Lord’s ‘plagiarisms’ from “Lenore” and “The Haunted Palace.“(3)

* 91. THE BIG BEAR OF ARKANSAS, AND OTHER TALES. EDITED BY W. T. PORTER.

The two first in the volume are, we think, much overrated by the editor — they seem to us dull and forced. Many of the others are irresistably comic and fresh . . . by our friend Field, of the inimitable ‘Reveille’ (BJ, I, 331).

James Fields, editor of the Reveille was a friend of Poe. Several letters of their correspondence are extant. There is no evidence to suggest that Briggs even knew Fields. She article is clearly Poe’s. The remaining three notices all seem to be by Poe.

92. THE SALE OF A DISTILLERY. BY WM. OLAND BOURNE.

Mr. Bourne has very vigorous talent . . . The conception is a most forcible one, and the execution (with very slight exception) masterly (BJ, I, 331). [page 608:]

93. THE DOSSAY PORTRAITS.

A reprint of a series of very pungent satirical papers — the point of which will not be so fully appreciated among us as could be desired (BJ, I, 331).

94. THE PRIME MINISTER. BY HEIRICH ZSCHOKKE.

Zschokke’s works have been very popular, and have in them all the elements of the best popularity (BJ, I, 331).

MAY 31, 1845.

* 95. MRS. CHILD’S PHILOTHEA.

For proof that this is Poe’s see Messenger section page 154. Signed “P” in Whitman copy.

AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF DOMESTIC ECONOMY. B.

That first part is very properly devoted to architecture, the construction of a house being the first consideration towards house keeping . . . Every man when he takes a wife, should also procure a copy of this valuable Encyclopaedia (BJ, I, 345) .

The reviewer limits himself to discussion of the woodcuts. He wonders why a view of Trinity Church was introduced. Briggs felt that Trinity Church was an architectural failure.(1) I have no doubt that this review is his.

HARPER’S ILLUMINATED AND ILLUSTRATED SHAKESPEARE. B.

There are two or three things about this edition of the great poet especially worthy of commendation(2) although there are others, which we shall point out next week, not to be passed over without reprehension. We particularly admire the illustrated corn . . . (BJ, I, 345).

I give the review to Briggs. [page 609:]

A TREATISE ON THE KNOWLEDGE NECESSARY TO AMATEURS IN PICTURES. BY FRANCIS ZAVIER DE BURTIN. B.

It contains, indeed, so much of that kind of practical information which amateurs must acquire, either through some such aid, or through the more tedious path of their own individual experience, and at the same time affords to persons of more matured taste such an insight into the state of connoisseurship on the Continent, that is is to be wondered that no one has, until now, endeavored to make it more generally acceptable by means of an English version . . . yet no publication of a previous or later date, addressed itself so directly to the wants and wishes of amateurs, or supplies(1) . . . (BJ, I, 345).

That this is Briggs I have no doubt.

THE MYSTERIES OF BERLIN. B ?

. . . but they seem to have fallen into suitable hands to prevent them to English readers (BJ, I, 345).

There is here an awkwardness which suggests that perhaps Briggs is the writer.

WYOMING. B ?

Wyoming is said to be the production of a lady, and it certainly contains nothing to indicate that it is from the pen of a man (BJ, I, 345).

There is really little here for evidence; the four following notices, all very short, have even less distinction. All these announcements, perhaps, sure Briggs.

THE PICTORIAL HISTORY OF THE WORLD. BY JOHN FROST. B ?

TABLE-TALK. BY WILLIAM HAZLITT.

GESTA ROMANORUM. B ?

THE BATTLE OF THE FACTIONS. BY WILLIAM CARLETON. B ? [page 610:]

HARPER’S PICTORIAL BIBLE. NO. 27. B ?

THE MAGAZINES. B.

For this week this column is nothing but an announcement of the Knickerbocker.

‘The Knickerbocker’ also contains an original poem by Tennyson, which the editor received from the same gentleman (a Mr. Bristed) (BJ, I, 346).

In the next article, “Literary Gossip,” which I believe is Briggs‘, one finds:

The last number of the Knickerbocker contains a poem which an American gentleman in England obtained from him (Tennyson) in this manner . . . we copy it for its novelty . . . The correspondent of the Knickerbocker in Constantinople, says . . . (BJ, I, 348).

This I believe also to be Briggs‘.

LITERARY GOSSIP. B.

This column is in Briggs own vein. First he discusses Thomas Hood, a propos of a letter received from England describing the state of that gentleman’s health. A few sentences will be suggestive:

. . . a truth which Excellent, witty, stout-hearted Thomas Hood has been rather playing with as a football or shuttlecock, any time these ten years, then receiving as so gloomy a missive. But alas, the time for skirmishing with so severe as antagonist, seems well nigh over . . . His merits will appear to us greater when the light is withdrawn and we sit in darkness . . . If Hood revives once more, he will be a sacred man while he lives. The sympathy of the good is with him (BJ, I, 347-48).

Next he quotes the Knickerbocker as to the ideality of the author of Eothen;(1) and finally he tells a Tennyson anecdote heard from “an American gentleman who has lately returned from Europe. [page 611:]

(?) 96. MISCELLANEA.

There are actually only two critical items here. One prints as announcement, from the “Editor’s Table” of the Knickerbocker, of a book to be made up from “the amusing contents of the Editor’s Table,” with a one sentence comment. In the light of the two preceding articles, the “Magazines” and “Literary Gossip,” this seems to be Briggs‘. The other announces Willis’ Dashes at Life. It was

received at so late a period, that we have been unable to do more than announce it. We shall, of course, speak of it very fully hereafter. Our opinion of Mr. Willis is well known (BJ, I, 349).

Poe did review this book in the August 23 Journal. Three other paragraphs point to Poe: an extract on anastatic printing, one on word-derivations, and the announcement that a poesy of Hirst, prianted in the Journal, has been extracted “by permission, from a volume of forthcoming poems” (BJ, I, 349). A paragraph an pianos suggests Watson. It seems, then, that all three editors had a hand in this column.

JUNE 7, 1845.

* 97. MAGAZINE-WRITINGS — PETER SNOOK.

For proof that this is Poe’s see pages 163-4, Messenger chapter. Signed “P” in Whitman copy.

FLEETWOOD, OR THE STAIN OF BIRTH. B (?)

A novel of American life is one of the greatest novelties in literature . . . But hitherto nobody but Mr. Dickens and Mrs. Trollope, has made an attempt at American life. It certainly speaks little for the imagination of our twenty millions, that not one among them has been found capable of giving a sketch of their characters. We have [page 612:] not produced a singe book which can be pointed to as containing an insight into the peculiarities of the national character . . . our American novelist is yet in embryo, and in embryo must remain until an international copyright law shall enable the genius of the nation to develope itself . . . Cheap reading, we mistrust,(1) produces cheap readers . . . A book needs the endorsement of a review to give it circulating value, but who will waste time in reviewing a work which is shabbily printed and sold for a shilling . . . ‘Fleetwood’ is probably quite an good a book as of those that issue from our press and an eagerly read by the young and thoughtless, doing them no more harm than any other merely idle employment, and we should not have selected it from a mass of flimsy things for an extended notice, had not the presumption of the author, in putting ‘a Novel of American life’ in the title page, arrested our attention. American life is human life, and the author who aims to represent American men and women, must bear in mind the importance of making them, appear like human beings, if he would have them pass current with the rest of the world (BJ, I, 361-62).

There are few ideas, save those art the last sentences, in this three column review which are unlike Poe. There are only here and there stylistic touches which an very unlike him; but these are enough to persuade me that Briggs is the author. If this be true, it in the first really passable critical work he has done in the Journal since his “Introductory” and “Mind Among Spindles.” One feels here, an one feels about those two articles, that some time has been spent in the composition. There is a semblance of structure, of order which one rarely finds in Briggs’ work. As a matter of fact, in opinion this review is very similar to the first two articles. [page 613:]

The heading of the column of short notices is this week changed to “New Works lately Received.” Here is a paragraph of editorial explanation:

(Under this heading we propose to give merely the title, or a succinct account, of all new works which may come to hand, and which are not reviewed at length in another portion of the Journal. Many of the publications here announced, however, will be made the subject of review hereafter. Those marked with an asterisk will certainly be noticed in full) (BJ, I, 362).

There is no mistaking the Poe tone here. According to principle all notices containing no criticism will not be mentioaed here.

(?) 98. AN EXPLANATORY AND PHONOGRAPHIC PRONOUNCING DICTIONARY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. BY WILLIAM BOLLES.

An admirable work. To give, for the present, merely its table of contents (BJ, I, 362).

This is marked with an asterisk. Poe reviewed the work the following week. Here, I think, is evidence enough.

In the next three notices there is nothing of value as evidence; however, because of position, it seems probable to me that they are Poe’s

(?) 99. SMITH’S WEEKLY VOLUME.

(?) 101. RICHARDSIANA.

102. THE BUSTLE. BY BELA MARSH.

It is wretchedly versified, and lacks point. Its philosophy, and even its truth, we regard as undeniable, but its decency may be well questioned — or, rather, its gross indecency cannot (BJ, I, 363).

This, of course, is Poe’s. Just an strongly do I feel that the next three are his. [page 614:]

103. THE COMPLETE EVANGELIST.

THE QUAKER CITY.

Its composition in hurried and uneven — but the author gives unequivocal indication of genius (BJ, I, 363).

104. EVELINE NEVILLE.

Its tone is good, and its style remarkably pure. We feel much interested is it for various reasons, and will probably recur to it hereafter. Can any one tell us who wrote it? (BJ, I, 363).

105. THE PROGRESS OF PASSION. BY REV. HENRY W. SWEETSER.

A long didactic poem (if there is such a thing as a didactic poem) in the blank Iambic Pentameter, awkwardly managed. There are many forcible thoughts tersely expressed; but, upon the whole, we dislike the work (BJ, I, 363).

(?) 106. THE CRESCENT AND THE CROSS.

Except the information that the author has been reading the English literary Journals, theme is little evidence offered here, I think, hovever, that it is probably Poe’s.

107. LIVES OF MEN OF LETTERS AND SCIENCE. BY HENRY LORD BROUGHAM.

A work which, of necessity, every thinking person must read . . . Voltaire — a man who, with all his blemishes, was unquestionably the most powerful who ever existed (BJ, I, 363).

Poe, I think, is the author.

? 108. VITAL CHRISTIANITY. BY ALEXANDER VINET.

Religion books are too often ‘got up’ as though . . . It is a sufficient indication of the character of Dr. Vinet, that he is called the Chalmers of Switzerland (BJ, I, 363).

The author may be Poe. The actual style of the notice points to him. I say ‘“may be” because the two following notices, the last in this column, [page 615:] seem to be by Briggs; and in notices this brief it is not safe to be governed by style when any sort of external consideration comes into play.

? 109. THE SYBIL’S BOOK OF FATE,

THE YOUNG BRIDE’S BOOK, AND

THE COMIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR.

The last of these neat little books has gained a popularity equal to that of Lindley Murray’s . . . The author is second to Cruikshank only, among English humorists (BJ, I, 363).

The notice is perhaps Poe * s,

THE KNICKERBOCKER SKETCH BOOK. B (?).

It contains one of the first papers by Longfellow, and one of the last by Irving, which are well worth preserving, as showing what one great writer may rise from, and what another may end in (BJ, I, 363).

Briggs, apparently, amounted this book in the May 31 “Miscellanea”; he is probably the author here.

110. MAGAZINES AND REVIEWS.

Democratic Review:

. . . a peculiarly unintelligible essay on Emerson by a ‘Disciple’ (BJ, I, 363).

Hunt’s Magazine:

The essay is written with vigor and, to a very great extent, with discrimination; but the writer betrays an inexcusable ignorance of his subject, or a very reprahsmibls prejudice against American authors . . . This is decidedly cool, considering that the editor of the Review is himself the author of the longest American poem which has been published . . . We regret, for the Review’s sake, that so absurd an article has been admitted into its columns (BJ, I, 363-64).

Poe, I have no doubt, is the author. [page 616:]

JUNE 14, 1845.

AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF DOMESTIC ECONOMY. NO. 4. B.

Though the present amber of this excellent work is less profusely illustrated with cuts than those that have proceded [[proceeded]] it, it is the most valuable of all, being occupied chiefly with the subject of food, which it treats very fully and discreetly (BJ, I, 376-77).

Briggs reviewed the first three parts of this worn in the May 31 Journal: he found it “comprehensive,” “valuable,” and of “general excellence.” The present preview, over three fourths of which consists of quotations, seem also to be his. The air of the whole is represented by those bits:

Something like thirty pages of the two last numbers are occupied by matter relating to domestic servants, which is mainly calculated to produce more harm than good in this country . . . We doubt whether this was written by a gentleman who has ever had the honor, personally, to officiate as a domestic servant of any kind . . . His picture of a nurse is particularly edifying; he has drawn a character of a more perfect monster than can be found in any novel (BJ, I, 376).

111. AN EXPLANATORY AND PHONOGRAPHIC PRONOUNCING DICTIONARY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. BY WILLIAM BOLLES.

This review is perfectly characteristic of Poe.

A work such as Mr. Bolles has here given us, was certainly much needed — that is to say, a complete English vocabulary with each word properly defined and its pronouncement distinctly exhibited. Walker’s Sheridan has been long objectionable, of course . . . (BJ, I, 377).

The rest of this paragraph points out in what respects Walker and Sheridan are outmoded, and the degree to which Bolles has made use of their work. The next reveals that with certain exceptions with which “we fully agree,” Johnson’s orthography has been followed. The next treats the principles regulating the admission of obsolete words: [page 617:]

We mean to say that Mr. Bolles’ proposition is, in his preface, too loosely or too generally stated. In fact, that is to say in the body of his work, we perceive that he has confined his revivals within the proper limit — confined them to such authors as are essentially standard (BJ, I, 378).

The last paragraph before the conclusion discusses Bolles’ rules of punctuation. Poe then — for even in the absence of external evidence, there can be little doubt that Poe is the reviewer . . . concludes:

If, upon the whole, we cannot regard this work as the most profound (a vague word often vaguely applied) we are at least disposed to consider it the most comprehensive, the most accurate, and by far the most practical — that is to say the most useful of its class (BJ, I, 378).

* THE DRAMATIC AUTHORS OF AMERICA. BY JAMES REESE. B.

. . . no art can flourish is a country when it is not countenanced by the better classes of society, and it a not be denied that the theatre derives no aids with us, from the learned, the wealthy, or the professedly religious . . . Let half-a-dozen D. Ds be seen in that pit of the Park Theatre, and we should not see their congregations following them, but we should see our men and women of genius exerting their talents for the amusement and instruction of such fit audiences . . . The Theatre exists send is likely to exist, and to exert an extensive influence of some kind in the community, and the only consideration should be, with good men, whether it would be better to leave it to grow in its enormities, or by giving it their countenance, convert it to a blessing instead of a curse to the people (BJ, I, 379).

This one immediately recognizes as Briggs’ point of view. In the January 11 “Drama,” he wrote:

Any species of amusement, which the professedly religious feel themselves compelled to avoid, can never be esteemed popular . . . The Theatre has long, always rather, been under the ban of what the world calls good men . . . It is very plain, then, that the [page 618:] professed philanthropist should look into this matter, and if he finds that the Theatre cannot be abolished, it is his duty to strive to render it as little injurious as possible, and by sometimes visiting it, to learn to counteract its influence (BJ, I, 30).

In the February 1 “Drama” he wondered whether a doctor of divinity in the city had ever troubled to inquire into the “nature of the mental food which is nightly administered” to the theatre-goers:

It is admitted that the stage is the most powerful method of enforcing a moral truth; and we do not see why some of these benevolent souls who bestow so much consideration upon the production of tracts . . . should not give some attention to the amusements of the destitute youth of our city . . . If some of the publication of the tract society were dramatized, we have so doubt that they would be highly popular . . . a religious drama, divested of sectarian cant, would possess this charm in a high degree (BJ, I, 378).

One finds here also Briggs’ propensity for the personal illustration, the chatty anecdote:

A literary gentleman remarked the other day . . . Ths wife of a popular tragedian in New York says . . . She says . . . (BJ, I, 378).

A few sentences will complete an impression of the general style and attitude. This reviewer has added three names to Rees’ list:

Probably Mr. Griswold will include these and many more of whom the country has never heard, in his forth-coming book can American prose writers . . . There is no objection among good people to pictures . . . The appearance of so respectable a person as Mrs. Mowatt on the stage, we trust, will not be without a purifying effect upon the atmosphere of the play-house (BJ, I, 378-9). [page 619:]

So closely is this review tied with the early Drama columns, which are definitely Briggs‘, and of such a definite sort is the corroborating evidence, that there can be no doubt, I think, that Briggs is here the reviewer.

. . . we would be glad to see some of the productions of Beckford substituted in their place; the Memoirs of Old Painters for instance . . . Mr. Redding’s recollections are very agreeable reading for hot weather, but be was too much impressed by the externals which surrounded Vathek to be able to form a cool judgment of his character (BJ, I, 379).

The request for “Old Painters” suggests Briggs. The last sentence quoted bears his touch, the notice, I believe, is his.

* 112. SELF. BY MRS. GORE.

True erudition is only certainly discoverable in its entire results. There is nothing written by Mrs. Gore, which is not within the reach of any decently educated person of ingenuity, having access to the large libraries of London. The same thing may be said even of the remarkable work, ‘The Doctor‘, and of a great many other a similar publications (BJ, I, 379).

Here are echoes of a passage Poe has already used three times: in the Messenger review of The Doctor, July, 1836; the Burton’s review of Canons of Good Breeding, 1839; and of Guy Fawkes, Graham’s, November 1841. “Guy Fawkes,” which reprints almost exactly the Burton’s, passage has, to quote only the part most close to the Journal a passage:

True erudition . . . is certainly discoverable, is positively indicated only in its ultimate and total results . . . (GM, XIX, 248; H, X, 216) ; [page 620:]

“The Doctor”:

Erudition is only certainly known in its total results . . . attainments within the reach of any well-informed, ingenious and industrious men having access to the great libraries of London (SLM, II, 506; H, IX, 68).

(?) 113. THE WAVERLY NOVELS. BY SIR WALTER SCOTT.

The general title of this book, as we give it am bare, includes all necessary information respecting it (SLM, II, 506; H, IX, 68).

In this short notices there is nothing more distinctive than the sentence quoted. Its position between two Poe notices persuades me that it is probably Poe’s. This reviewing device, which might be called the “title trick” Poe had used from the beginning of his critical career. In the second volume of the Journal it becomes almost an habitual thing.

114. VERONICA. BY ZSCHOKKE.

Zschokke, of late, has become popular in America to an extent which neither his intrinsic merit nor his foreign reputation would appear to justify. We would not undervalue his genius, (if genius it can be called,) but we mean to say that there are numerous Germans whose works might be translated to better purpose (BJ, I, 379).

This, I think, in Poe’s.

JULY 21, 1845.

AN ESSAY ON THE PHILOSOPHY OF MEDICAL SCIENCE. BY ELISHA BARTLETT. THE PRINCIPLES OF THE CHRONO THERMAL SYSTEM OF MEDICINE. BY SAMUEL DICKINSON.

. . . that we may expound their meaning, for the benefit of our readers who happen to be uninitiated in the mysteries of Esculapius’ worship . . . But for ourselves who have dabbled in these matters . . . Unfortunately for mankind, we had too many men in the profession . . . We can speak here, with the assurance of personal [page 621:] experience, for in our own studios we have come to similar though not identical results, long before we ever heard of the Fallacies of the Faculty . . . even to an unprofessional reader . . . (BJ, I, 392).

These passages suggest that the reviewer is himself a student of medicine. The style is not Poe’s nor is it particularly like Briggs’:

. . . that he has drank (sic) at the very source of truth . . . we can declare that we rose from the intellectual repast which the doctor cooked up, with a hungry stomach, for the quantity we have (sic) consumed proved but a few grains of truth in a bushel of chaff . . . Without the aid of scholastic glasses he is incapable of looking upon nature, and marking her workings . . . and they might have gone on still longer putting wrong questions to nature, and remain as ignorant an ever . . . (BJ, I, 393).

This seems to be a contributed review; whoever the contributor may be — and apparently he is a “professional” man — he does not write very good English.

*115. PLATO CONTRA ATHEOS. BY TAYLOR LEWIS.

Most of this review is a “fair, although very succinct synopsis.” The reviewer comments at the end:

No one can doubt the purity and nobility of the Platonian soul, or the ingenuity of the Platonian intellect. But if the question be put to-day, what is the value of the Platonian philosophy, the proper answer is — exactly nothing at all‘. We do not believe that any good purpose is answered by popularizing his dreams; on the contrary we do believe that they have a strong tendency to ill — intellectually of course (BJ, I, 393).

He then quotes Dr. Lewis disparaging “this noisy Baconism about which there is kept up such an everlasting din.” The reviewer concludes:

For our own part, we vastly prefer even the noise of Bacon, the laws of Combe, or the nebular star dust of Nichols to what Dr. Lewis will insist upon [page 622:] terming ‘the clear,’ simple, common-sense philosophy of Plato’ — but these things are merely matters of taste. It would be as well, however, to bear in mind the aphoristic sentence of Leibnitz . . . (BJ, I, 394).

Poe’s admiration for Bacon is clear. In the January, 1842, Graham’s review of North, he spoke of Bacon’s “calm bredth and massive deliberateness” (BM, XX, 72). In the Journal he “has no patience with” Griswold’s “sneer at Bacon” who had “a thorough appreciation of the true and beautiful” (BJ, II, 177; H, XII, 247). Signed “P” in the Whitman copy.

HARPER’S ILLUMINATED AND ILLUSTRATED EDITION OF SHAKESPEARE. NOS. 55 & 56.

We have already expressed a favorable opinion of this truly beautiful edition of Shakespeare; but the present issue comes to us with so liberal an enrichment of wood cuts, that we cannot refrain from expressing once more our opinion of its cheapness and beauty (BJ, I, 394).

The earlier notice of May 31 was assigned to Briggs. Here is corroboration. Time and time again Briggs’ preoccupation with woodcuts has been noticed, and as often an attitude expressed here again:

It is a disgrace to American Art, that we have never been able to produce the shadow of an ornamental design . . . (BJ, I, 394). (1)

A PILGRIMAGE TO TREVES. B.

We have here another new book from the pen of an American(2) . . . The author, a son of the Rev. Dr. Anthon(3) . . . We do not mean to underrate Mr. Anthon’s work because it was produced under circumstances so exceedingly agreeable. There are but few young gentlemen of his years and opportunities who ever think of producing a book at all . . . Probably some [page 623:] readers if made acquainted with the realities of Hardenne would say that it was furnished in a style of the most superb and thrilling magnificence, for we saw in one of our morning papers, a day or two since, an allusion to a new Broadway Omnibus was styled ‘a truly palatial carriage‘, and every newspaper reader knows that all the steamboats in our waters are ‘floating palaces’ (BJ, I, 394-5).

I have no doubt that this it Briggs‘.

SATANSTOE. BY J. FENIMORE COOPER. B (?)

Satanstoe appears to be the first of a series of three tales written to illustrate a principle, the principle of anti-rentism, which Mr. Cooper considers a greater disgrace to the State of New-York than repudiation to Mississippi. We have but little faith in stories that are written to illustrate any other principle than the principle of human nature (BJ, I, 395).

This, the first of the short notices, is probably Briggs‘.

NOTES, EXPLANATORY AND PRACTICAL, ON THE EPISTLE OF PAUL. BY ALBERT BARNES. B.

Not the least interesting portion of the work is the Introduction, which embraces an account of the situation of Ephesus,(1) and the character of its people, as well as of the advent of the Gospel(2) among them . . . This introduction is illustrated with two wood engravings . . . (BJ, I, 395).

Briggs, I thinks is the author of this notice.

116. DE ROHAN. BY M. EUGENE SUE.

It is by no means as good a book as we have a right to expect from that author of ‘The Mysteries of Paris‘; its interest has been materially impaired by too close an adherence to historical fact . . . an eccentric Dutch philosopher of great genius and erudition . . . (BJ, I, 396).

I seem to recognize Poe here, as in the next. [page 624:]

(?) 117. OCEAN WORK. BY J. HALL WRIGHT.

A little more science and a little less prattle would have greatly enhanced its value as a book for the people,(1) but even in its present shape, it contains a great amount of knowledge in a very limited space (BJ, I, 396).

(?) 118. THE AGE OF ELIZABETH. BY WILLIAM HOWITT.

Neither this nor the next four very short notices have any real distinction. Their position(2) convinces me that they are probably Poe’s.

(?) 119. THE BLIND GIRL, WITH OTHER TALES. BY EMMA C. EMBURY.

(?) 120. THE DUTCHMAN’S FIRESIDE. BY JOHN NEAL.

(?) 121. A SYSTEM OF LATIN VERSIFICATION. BY CHARLES ANTHON.

(?) 122. THE GAMBLER’S WIFE.

JULY 29, 1845.

THE AESTHETIC LETTERS, ESSAYS, AND PHILOSOPHICAL LETTERS OF SCHILLER. TRANSLATED BY J. WEISS. B.

This review opens with a tirade against ‘cheap literature‘. A few sentences will set the tone of the whole:

Who but a Pyrrhonist would doubt the existence of these hordes of Nomadic bibliophiles who haunt our railway stations and steamboat-wharves, arrayed, with emblematic propriety, in that last stage of cloth, ere it is translated into material for the author and the printer? . . . Flocks of pamphlets on green and blue, and yellow wings, hover over the land — obscense volucres — to snatch at [page 625:] and beslime, like harpies, whatever is pure and healthfully nourishing for the soul. Under the very eaves of our churches and colleges, these filthy creatures hang their nests, prolific of infamy and vice; they perch upon the roofs of our lyceums and lecture rooms; they disturb the hitherto peaceful recesses of our hamlets and villages with hearse screams for their prey of garbage and ordure. Literature, in the true sense of the word, is dead . . . Bad food will produce disease as well in the spiritual as the material world . . . The literature which really circulates among the masses, and steals through the gateway of our national morals for so cheap a toll, is the literature of the pickpocket, the burglar, and the bawd . . . (BJ, I, 408).

This gush of indignant eloquence continues for a column and a half. It has no relation to the review itself. Of the review there is almost nothing — and of that nothing only a fourth or a fifth is criticism. The rest is quoted. One finds:

But Schiller was no apostle of the ideal in the sense which those understand it who would make it an excuse for a weak dereliction from fidelity to the truth of absolute nature. By ‘ideal’ he meant that highest perfection of nature which only are inspired eye of the true artist can discorn (BJ, I, 409).

I have no doubt that Briggs is the reviewer.

THE FRUIT AND FRUIT TREES OF AMERICA. BY A. J. DOWNING. B ?

This is the most valuable of all the books which Mr. Downing has contributed . . . Some idea may be formed of its completeness from the fact . . . if there be people who are indifferent to pomological matters, we advise them to procure Mr. Downing’s work and plunge into the midst of his pearmains, rare-ripes and dameons. All the true disciples of pomology will get the book as a matter of course (BJ, I, 410).

This also I believe to be Briggs‘.

 


[[Footnotes]]

[The following footnotes appear at the bottom of page 518:]

1.  Mrs. Whitman-Ingram, Providence, February 11, 1871, Ingram Collection, UVL.

2.  See Mrs. Whitman-Ingram, Providence, April 3, 1879. Ingram Collection, UVL.

3.  Many of the P’s seem, however, to have been traced over.

[The following footnotes appear at the bottom of page 519:]

1.  H, XII, viii-ix.

2.  “Anthon’s Dictionary,” April 12; “Lord’s Poems,” May 24; “Hunt’s Indicator,” August 30; and “Editorial Miscellany,” September 6. It is possible, but not probable, that the photographer at Huntington Library overlooked these pages.

3.  The “Editorial Miscellanies” for August 16 and 23, September 20 and 27; October 4 and 11, December 6 and 27; and, in the number for November 29, “Sybil’s Wreath” and ‘“Tennyson’s Poems.”

4.  From a photostat of this page in the UVL. [[Note — this receipt is one of four from Bisco’s own copy of the Broadway Journal. This copy is now in a private collection — JAS]]

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 520:]

1.  Lowell-Briggs, Philadelphia, January 16, 1845 (Harvard MSS. Phot. in UVL), makes it clear that Briggs is the author of the “Introductory.”

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 521:]

1.  This statement, of course, does not fit Poe.

[The following footnotes appear at the bottom of page 525:]

1.  Cf. the Graham’s August, 1843, notice of Channing: GM, XXIII, 113; H, XI, 176.

2.  BJ, April 12, 1845. (BJ, I, 230; H, XIV, 153).

3.  Horne-Poe, London, May 17, 1845. Gr. MSS. Phot. in UVL.

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 526:]

1.  E. B. Browning-Horne, 58 Wimpole Street, May 12, 1845. In Woodberry, “Poe in New York,” Century, 1894, p. 854.

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 527:]

1.  Poe regularly writes such possessives “James‘”; cf. the passage quoted from Burton’s.

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 528:]

1.  Lowell-Briggs, January 16, 1845. Harvard MSS. Phot. in UVL.

[The following footnotes appear at the bottom of page 529:]

1.  Briggs-Lowell, In Scudder, James Russell Lowell. No date is given for the cont. letter. It is in reply, however, to a Lowell letter which may, from internal evidence, be dated before January 22 and after January 16. Briggs usually answered Lowell promptly.

2.  Poe’s article appeared in the Jan. 9 Evening Mirror, and in the Jan, 15 Weekly Mirror.

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 531:]

1.  See the section on the Mirror, p. 467 for quotations from this notice.

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 533:]

1.  Briggs-Lowell, New York, August 21, 1845. Woodberry, The Life of Edgar Allan Poe, II, 146.

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 534:]

1.  UVL lacks this volume of DR.

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 535:]

1.  Note the syntax.

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 537:]

1.  In the review of Lanman’s Letters, February 15, Briggs makes the same error: “Who knows how ridiculously a critic appears” (BJ, I, 199).

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 538:]

1.  Note the shift here in person from one sentence and the one following it.

[The following footnote appears in the bottom of page 542:]

1.  This is in the section quoted “Marginalia“.

[The following footnotes appear at the bottom of page 545:]

1.  Note the syntax.

2.  This seems to have been a favorite image with Briggs. He used it is the January 4 review of the American Poulterer’s Companion (BJ, I, 13).

[The following sentence appears at the bottom of page 546:]

1.  Note the awkwardness.

[The following footnotes appear at the bottom of page 547:]

1.  Note the recurrence of this image.

2.  See page 536-7 of this chapter.

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 548:]

1.  Lowell-Briggs, Philadelphia, March 21, 1845. Harvard MSS. Phot. in UVL.

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 549:]

1.  Note this form of the possessive.

[The following footnotes appear at the bottom of page 555:]

1.  Note the form of the possessive.

2.  Note the grammar.

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 556:]

1.  See page 547 of this chapter.

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 558:]

1.  See page ??? of this chapter.

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 563:]

1.  This poem is the subject of the Journal review.

[The following footnotes appear at the bottom of page 567:]

1.  See page ??? of this chapter.

2.  See BJ, I, 61.

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 568:]

1.  The first issue of the Messenger appeared in August, 1834; the next three issues are dated October, November, and December; after which, for awhile, there was no irregularity. Reckoning months by the numbers of the magazine, the seventh is April. This statement is, then a little inaccurate. Poe did not become White’s assistant — he was never editor — until the August number. It is possible that in April he first made definite arrangements to become a constant contributor.

[The following footnotes appear at the bottom of page 571:]

1.  See, for instance, BJ, II, 357; H, XXII, 27.

2.  The earlier notice, answering the charge, has been shown to be definitely Poe’s. See pp. 361-62 of this chapter.

[The following footnotes appear at the bottom of page 572:]

1.  It is clear here that the word is used in its usual sense, not with the meaning Poe might have given it.

2.  i. e. clairvoyance produced unconsciously.

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 574:]

1.  Mowatt-Poe, New York, Thursday evening (March, 1845). Gr. MSS. Phot. in UVL.

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 580:]

1.  See page 574 of this section.

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 582:]

1.  Note the form of the possessive.

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 585:]

1.  Briggs usually, if not regularly, writes this word “any thing.”

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 586:]

1.  Note the form of this construction.

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 588:]

1.  Though it has before begun given him only by Campbell, and that in a group with the other reviews of this week and with a question mark.

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 589:]

1.  See the Mirror chapter, page ???.

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 590:]

1.  Usually Poe writes this “anything.” This sort of thing, however, is too dependent upon the compositor, and the proof-reader to be of much weight alone as evidence. Furthermore, the writing of such words, at this time, seems to have been unsettled.

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 591:]

1.  Poe writes this “further.”

[The following footnotes appear at the bottom of page 592:]

l. See p. 566 of this chapter.

2.  In the March 22 notice of Mr. Hudson, Briggs spelled this word “practictioner.”

[The following footnotes appear at the bottom of page 593:]

1.  Poe noticed in two installments, April. 12 and 19, Gouraud’s book on memory.

2.  Note the form of this phrase.

[The following footnotes appear at the bottom of page 594:]

1.  Note the form of this phrase.

2.  Briggs-Lowell, New York, August 21, 1845. Woodberry, op. cit., II, 145-46.

3.  See Varner, J. G., “Note on a Poem Attributed to Poe,” Am. Lit., VIII, 66-8.

[The following footnotes appear at the bottom of page 595:]

1.  Lowell-Briggs, Philadelphia, February 15, 1845. Scudder, op. cit., I, 161.

2.  Lowell-Briggs, Philadelphia, March 21, 1945. Harvard MSS. Phot. in UVL.

3.  There is clearly a printing error here: “it should not be” should be added after “everything.”

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 600:]

1.  See pages 570-1 of this chapter.

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 601:]

1.  Note the syntax.

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 602:]

1.  See page 578 of this chapter.

[The following footnotes appear at the bottom of page 603:]

1.  This is a favorite word with Briggs.

2.  Anyone who reads much of Briggs soon observes with what frequency this awkward sort of structure occurs.

[The following footnotes appear at the bottom of page 604:]

1.  See GM, XXIII, 164-5.

2.  See Spannuth and Mabbott (eds.) Doings of Gotham, pp. 49-50.

[The following footnotes appear at the bottom of page 605:]

1.  See page 586 of this section.

2.  See pages 580-1 of this section.

3.  Poe-Griswold, H, XVII, 170. Harrison dates this “1844?”; it must have been written after the middle of May, 1845.

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 606:]

1.  Campbell, K., Mind of Poe, pp. 90-1.

[The following footnotes appear at the bottom of page 607:]

1.  See H, XVI, 103. UVL lacks this volume of DR.

2.  See GLB, XXXIII, 12; H, XV, 96.

3.  See SLM, XV, 293; H, XVI, 150-51.

[The following footnotes appear at the bottom of page 608:]

1.  See “Knickerbocker“, BJ, I, 221; “Glossary,” BJ, I, 147.

2.  Note the review of this construction.

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 609:]

1.  Note the shift in tense.

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 610:]

1.  Briggs, it will be remembered, reviewed Eothen in the Journal for March 22.

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 612:]

1.  Note this usage.

[The following footnote appears at the bottom of page 618:]

1.  Briggs wrote thus of Griswold in the two first Journal articles: see BJ, I, 1-2.

[The following footnotes appear at the bottom of page 622:]

1.  Cf. BJ, I, 221, et passim.

2.  This is the tone of the “Introductory”

3.  Never in any of his many reviews of Anthon does Poe call him “Rev. Dr.”

[The following footnotes appear at the bottom of page 623:]

1.  What does he mean? Such imprecision is unlike Poe.

2.  This cant phrase would have nauseated Poe, I think, equally as much as it does us.

[The following footnotes appear at the bottom of page 624:]

1.  So the title proclaims it to be.

2.  As I have assigned the brief notices, the first two are Briggs‘; the rest Poe’s.


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[S:0 - CCWEAP, 1941] - Edgar Allan Poe Society of Baltimore - Articles - A Canon of the Critical Works of EAP (W. D. Hull) (Part V, Chapter II)