Text: Burton R. Pollin, “The Broadway Journal: Notes (January 1845),” The Collected Writings of Edgar Allan Poe — Vol. IV: Broadway Journal (Annotations) (1986), pp. 1-17 (This material is protected by copyright)


[page 1:]


1/1} This two-part review is Poe’s major essay in the whole BJ for many reasons; It displays major critical principles about the language, construction, and suitable topics of writing; his attitudes on contemporary authors, such as Tennyson, and observations on many of the past, such as Homer, Aeschylus, Aristotle, and Milton; and it offered Poe a chance to discuss the poem by Elizabeth Barrett which supplied so much to “The Raven.” Elizabeth Barrett Barrett, who was to be married to Robert Browning in 1846, had many literary ties to America (q.v. in Elizabeth R. Gould, The Brownings and America, 1904, Boston, Poet Lore, especially pp. 12, 18, 20, 24). The “learned poetess” mentioned in Graham’s Editor’s Table saw four of her sonnets published in the 12/42 issue of that magazine. Graham’s offered four more in 1843, and three in 1844. Other periodicals offering her work were Arcturus of 2/41 (from which the four sonnets of Graham’s 12/42 were transshipped), NAR 7/42, Democratic Review 7 and 10/44, and the Mirror 12/7/44, In the Pioneer of 4/43 can be found letters of praise from Lowell and Mrs. Sigourney. She had also a keen interest in international copyright laws, as did Poe and Mathews, who long nurtured her reputation in America. From the 10/39 BGM printing of “The Exile’s Return” and her appearances in Graham’s, Poe must have formed some idea of her importance. He also knew of her friendship with the British poet and journalist R.H. Horne (cf. 105/31), whose good offices he wished to engage for British publication of his tales (see Pollin, AL, 1965, 38.185-90; also, Poe Log for 1/25/45). Both Brownings were aware of Poe’s efforts to cultivate their favor (see his dedication of the ROP to Elizabeth Barrett Barrett) and often discussed Poe in letters and conversations (q.v. in Letters of Robert Browning and Elizabeth Barrett Barrett, 1844-45, Harvard U.P., 1969, 2 vols., E. Kintner, editor).

Poe’s criticism of this, the major poem of the volume (published as Poems almost simultaneously in England, with the proof sheets used for the American copytext, the volume being issued early in 10/44) was kinder than that of posterity, as Gardner B. Taplin indicates (see The Life of Elizabeth Barrett Barrett, Yale U.P., 1957, pp. 124, 126, 130, 132-3, 135, the British press being rather sharper than the American). Elizabeth herself noted the oddly uneven, variedly pro and anti comments of Poe in her later remarks to Robert Browning (q.v. in Taplin, pp. 1378; Kintner, 297-8).

Even before this review, Poe recognized the importance of her volume in America, and gave it two short notices in the Evening Mirror. His earliest remark on the book (which was [page 2:] published early in October) was in the 10/7/44 issue, deeming the work superior to that of Tennyson and Motherwell, with three poems quoted, two in toto. In the 11/7/44 issue, Poe defends Miss Barrett from an anonymous detractor as not “disordered or mad,” reprinted in the Weekly Mirror of the same date (noted by Woodberry, 2.102).

1/5} For James Puckle (1667?-1724, not a “Sir”) and his work, see M 23, which uses this quotation, and note b which follows.

1/8} G——— must stand for Rufus W. Griswold (1815-1857), eventually Poe’s literary executor and author of the large best-seller, The Poets and Poetry of America (1843). For Poe’s regular derision of him, see MM 82, 101, 123.

1/9} Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797), author of Vindication of the Rights of Woman, was attacked by Horace Walpole as a “hyena in petticoats,” perhaps Poe’s sole knowledge of her importance to the female movement.

1/12} Anne N. Royall (1769-1854), began by writing of her travels over the United States in 1824. As a critic she was noted for her liberal spirit and reformer’s zeal, as well as her indiscretion and amateurish nature. She displayed an uncanny ability to uncover graft, making her an object of fear in Washington. Aside from her books, which serve as a valuable source of social history, she also edited several papers (DAB).

1/13} Zoilus: For Poe’s extensive use of the 4th cent. B.C. rhetorician, known for his witty, spiteful criticism, see LST 1 a.

1/14} Salic law: laws of the Salian Franks (on the Sala or Yossel) erroneously thought to establish exclusion of women from the thrones of Europe.

2/4} puffery: undue praise, used often by the journals of the day. For the first episode in Poe’s campaign against it (promotion of Norman Leslie) see S. Moss, Poe’s Literary Battles (1963), ch. 2, and Pollin, Mi Q, 1972, 25.111-30.

2/11} The American is Cornelius Mathews (1817-1889), ed., with Duyckinck (q.v.), of Arcturus, the organ of the Young America movement (for this nationalistic reaction to British supremacy in letters, and Poe’s advocacy of it, see Claude [page 3:] Richard, Studies in Bibliography, 1968, 21.25-58). Although friendly at first, Poe came to vilify Mathews and his work in later years (cf. MM 269, 270, 278).

2/16} “Beersheba to Dan”: see Judges 20.1, “From Dan even to Beersheba.”

2/17-20} Democratic Review, 10/44, 15.370-7, review of A Drama of Exile; “. . .nor will she fail to speak her mind, though it bring upon her a bad rhyme.” Contrary to Poe’s statement, the context is complimentary (p. 377). J. and H. G. Langley was the firm publishing both the Am. edition of her poems and the Democratic Review.

2/21} Poe refers here to the American Review, A Whig Journal, 1/45, 1.38-48, which begins: “Miss Barrett’s new book . . . is published simultaneously with the English edition, under the care of an American author* [*Mr. Mathews] to whom Miss Barrett pays a delicate compliment in her preface, and whose volume of Poems she praises. . .‘as remarkable in thought and manner, for a vital, sinewy vigor, as the right arm of Pathfinder.’ ” First sentence (p. 38); “. . .there are but 2 poets . . .[in] the new generation — Alfred Tennyson and Miss Barrett.” Page 39: 2 methods for the critic, the synthetic and the analytic. First, for the greatest poets — “take the poet’s own word, and proceed with him in the development of his work.”

2/39} For Elizabeth Barrett Barrett’s grateful response to Poe’s critique, expressed in her letter to R. H. Horne (who sent it to Poe in 5/45), see A. Quinn, EAP, 451-2; also the Poe Log for 1/25/45, and Pollin, “The Spectacles,” in AL, 1965, 37.185-90, specifically, 185, 189. Poe exaggerates about the “long published” and “universally read” volume, out only four months, obviously because of her popularity and influence in England. For his own slavish reading of “Lady Geraldine’s Courtship” as reflected in “The Raven” see TOM, Poems, 356-7.

2/43} “I decided on publishing it after considerable hesitation and doubt,” p. vi; implies here for the first time.

2/48} experiment / experience (in Elizabeth Barrett Barrett)

2/59-68} The errors are (in vol. 1) 23 worldless; 26 split/spilt; 37 ?; 45 forgone (this spelling is found in an instance from 1849, by M. Arnold, OED); 53 ?; 56 communicable; 80 cursemete [page 4:] /cruise-mate?; 166 steeds/steeds; 174 chambere / chamber or ladye / ladye; 180 steal / steel; (last line faint and missing many letters); 185 “were it found her” / “were it to find her”; 251 wordly / worldly.

In vol. 2: 109 “The Last Bower”: astonied / astonished (Poe ignores its being an archaic form of “stunned”); 114 faries / faeries or fairies; 240 “Catarina to Camodns”: Drop / Dropped (?); 247 “Sleeping and Watching”: reveillie / reveille (?); 253 “Wine of Cyprus”: T ese / These; 272 “The Dead Pan”: Froze / Froze (the former is an archaism, probably deliberate, of the latter).

3/35} James Silk Buckingham (1786-1855) was a British journalist and politician who travelled a great deal in the Orient. In his retirement he lectured on his travels (see M 288). It was perhaps his temperance pamphlets which, at least in part, earned him Poe’s enmity (see Pollin, “Poe’s ‘Some Words with a Mummy’ Reconsidered,” Emerson Society Quarterly, 60.60-7).

Lectures on Egypt and Palestine, D. Fanshaw, NY, 1837, 8p. Notes of the Buckingham Lectures: embracing sketches of the geography, antiquities, and present condition of Egypt and Palestine. . . (Leavitt, Lord and Co., NY, 1838), 266p.

3/37} For Blitz, see 41/20 [facsimile text] below.

3/40-51} On pp. 127-28 (with no substantive changes).

4/14} bull: a self-contradictory proposition (OED).

4/31} For “fire and brimstone,” see Psalms 11.6, Luke 17.29, Rev. 14.10.

4/33} See Drama of Exile, p. 21: “When countless angel faces, still and stern / Pressed out upon me from the level heavens, / Adown the abysmal sphere;”

4/42} niäiseries: foolishness; silly things (actually spelled niaiseries, Spiers & Surenne, 1852) or nĂ¯aiseries by Poe, who liked the word (see Br. xxxvii-lx, M 291e).

4/48} For Poe’s knowledge of Milton, see Thomas P. Haviland, “How Well Did Poe Know Milton?“, PMLA, 1954, 69.841-60.

4/54} See Paradise Lost, Satan’s speech, book 6. [page 5:]

4/59} Puff-paste refers to a light, fluffy dough (OED).

4/61} reveillé: not a typo, but uncommon now (reveille or reveille). From the French réveillez.

5/9} For Poe on allegory, see Pollin, “Undine in the works of Poe,” Studies in Romanticism, 1975, 14.59-74.

5/16} Cf. Poe, “The Power of Words,” Democratic Review, 6/45; TOM 1215: “This wild star —. . .I spoke it — with a few passionate sentences — into birth.” The sequence of dates is significant. Lines 15-27 are lines 1053-66, 1.68.

5/65} See M 201 for quotation and ref. to Homer. These are on Br., pp. 82-83.

5/77} For Poe’s possible coinage of “Art-product” see PCW, p.

6/8} On 1.39.

6/18-20} The poem is on 2.7-63; the rest is from Pref. Lix. For the “heresy” of didacticism according to Poe, see “The Poetic Principle” (q.v. in H 15.271-2, and IV, pp. 11-12).

6/24} Jean Louis Guez de Balzac (1597-1654), prominent French essayist. See Pin 154 for Poe’s ascription to him of Bouhours’ book.

6/25} angéique (more correctly). No French phrase book has yielded this quotation.

6/30} For “under current” and its relation to “Allegory” see M 98n.

6/37} “Chris North” in Blackwood’s of 11/44, 55.621-39, specifically, 635, Drama of Exile, 2.24.

6/44} The actual quotation is, “. . .syntax of the passage will puzzle future. . .” Poe’s change or the typesetter’s?

6/57-67} In 2.24.

7/22} Cf. the legend concerning Oedipus and the Sphinx. [page 6:] Also “Thou Art the Man”: “I will now play the Oedipus to the . . . enigma (TOM 1044):” The lines are on 2.28.

7/35} Blackwood’s writes, “We shall commence (after reviewing A Drama) with her sonnets; for these appear to us to be by far the most finished of her compositions in point of style; and in depth and purity of sentiment, we think that they surpass any thing she has ever written, with the exception of the poem entitled ‘Bertha in the Lane’ ” (p. 622).

The magazine prints in entirety “Discontent,” “Futurity,” “Comfort,” “The Meaning of the Look” and “Patience Taught by Nature.”

The actual quotation concerning “Bertha,” paraphrased by Poe, runs thus: “But the gem of the collection is unquestionably the poem entitled ‘Bertha in the Lane.“’

7/42} Note Barrett’s success with the sonnet in later years, and their popularity at the time of this review (cf. 1/1). Poe himself rarely used the sonnet form (TOM, Poems, 323, note to line 9). For her sonnets see pp. 135-62.

“The Prisoner,” 1.161, reads thus: “Nature’s lute / Sounds on behind this door so closely shut, / A strange, wild music to the prisoner’s ears, / Dilated by the distance, till the brain / Grows dim with fancies which it feels too fine; / While ever, with a visionary pain, / Past the precluded senses, sweep and shine / Streams, forests, glades, — and many a golden train / Of sunlit hills, transfigured to Divine.”

7/46-61} “The Romaunt of the Page,” 1.167; “The Rhyme of the Duchess May,” 2.65; “The Poet and the Bird, a Fable,” 2.102; “A Child Asleep,” 2.127; “Crowned and Wedded,” 2.140; “Crowned and Buried,” 2.146; “To Flush, my Dog,” 2.156; “The Fourfold Aspect,” 2.163; “A Flower in a Letter,” 2.170; “A Lay of the Early Rose,” 2.184; “That Day. For Music,” 2.207; “L.E.L.’s Last Questio,” 2.223; “Catarina to Camodns,” 2.233; “Wine of Cyprus,” 2.248; “The Dead Pan,” 2.266; “Sleeping and Watching,” 2.245; “A Portrait,” 2.241; “The Mournful Mother,” 1.214; “A Valediction,” 1.218; “The House of Clouds,” 2.227; “The Lost Bower,” 2.104.

8/2} “The Lay of the Brown Rosary,” 1.183-213 (Elizabeth Barrett Barrett’s spelling).

8/18} The actual phrase from Aristotle is dio kai philosophateron kai spoudaioteron poiesis historia to kath‘hekaston legei (“Thus poetry is superior to and more philosophic than [page 7:] history; poetry treats more of the general, history of the peculiar” [De Arte Poetica, Vahlen’s Text, Edward R. Wharton, tr., 1890], p. 28.)

Poe’s misquotation betrays an ignorance of Greek confirmed by the same corruption of this phrase in his 1836 “Letter to B ———.” (H 7.xxxvii) and an 1842 review of Stanley Thorn (H 11.12).

8/21} To provide an example, the first stanza of “The Cry of the Human” (2.177) runs thus: “‘There is no God,’ the foolish saith, — / But none, ‘There is no sorrow,’ / And nature oft, the cry of faith, / In bitter need will borrow: / Eyes which the preacher could not school, / By wayside graves are raised; / And lips say, ‘God be pitiful,’ / Who ne‘er said, ‘God be praised.’ / Be pitiful, O God!”

arabesquerie: Poe coinage (cf. PCW, p. 23).

8/22} “The Cry of the Children,” 2.131-39.

8/25} “Bertha in the Lane” (cf. 7/35), 2.195-206.

8/27} Democratic Review, 10/44, p. 376: “Bertha in the Lane,” pastoral, tender, and well wrought out, but perhaps not one of the best.”

8/28} For Blackwood’s Edinburgh Magazine (p. 626) in Poe’s works, see PD, 110; also SM In.

8/32} “Lady Geraldine’s Courtship,” 1.221-264.

8/40-43} N. B. Poe’s use of the language and meter of this poem (q.v. in 2/29 above).

9/11} On 1.224, st. III. This popular gift book poem was revised in later editions.

9/18} Blackwood’s, p. 638.

9/19} Christopher North: pseud. of Professor John Wilson (1785-1854), M.A., Oxford. Summoned to the bar, 1815; he joined the staff of Blackwood’s in 1817, becoming the magazine’s chief supporter with John Gilbert Lockhart (cf. H 9.171, 10.213). In 1820 Wilson was elected professor of moral philosophy at Edinburgh on the strength of his Tory convictions. It was in Blackwood’s that he wrote, under his pseudonym, Noctes [page 8:] Ambrosianae (1822-35, cf. 9/43). See PD, p. 99; cited as critic SM 1, SM 7.

9/30} Blackwood’s, p. 637.

9/31-32} On 1.261. The italics are from Blackwood’s, indicating dissatisfaction.

9/35} Poe’s pun (-um equaling -us) in the Latin ignores Frederic’s penchant for French (therefore “Chacun a son gout”).

9/43} Ambrosians: the conversations of North’s circle, which make up Noctes Ambrosianae, supposedly took place in Ambrose’s Tavern (OCEL).

Saint Ambrose (340-397 A.D., bishop of Milan from 374) greatly influenced church music (hymnody and antiphonal psalmody). Ambrosian liturgy and music at Milan long resisted the trends of the Church at Rome. The term “Ambrosian” was early applied also to any Latin hymn sung at the Hours. Poe’s obscure allusion may be to any of these elements.

9/47} This image may derive from Lucian’s statue, used by Poe thrice (cf. FS 21).

9/54} J.P. Pritchard, Classical Weekly, 26.132, sees a ref. to Horace, Carmen, III, st. XXX, 1-5: “Exegi monumentum. . .fuga temporum.”

10/5} “blé”: “A Drama of Exile,” 1.33; The Romaunt of the Page,” 1.73 (without accent).

“chrysm” (chrism): “A Drama of Exile,” 1.68, 1.118, 1.121; “nympholeptic”: “The Lost Bower,” 2.117; “oenomel”: “Wine of Cyprus,” 2.256.

10/6} “chrysopras”: “A Vision of Poets,” 2.51.

10/8} “ ’ware”: “A Drama of Exile,” 1.75-6; “The Romaunt of the Page,” 1.177; “Crowned and Buried,” 2.148; “A Rhapsody of Life’s Progress,” 2.218.

10/9} “ ’bide”: “Crowned and Buried,” 2.152; “A Rhapsody of Life’s Progress,” 2.218; “‘gins”: “The Lay of the Brown Rosary,” 1.201.

10/10} “ ’las”: “Rhyme of the Duchess May,” 2.85; “The House [page 9:] of Clouds,” 2.231; “oftly”: “Catarina to Camodns,” 2.238; “ofter”: “The Mournful Mother,” 1.215.

10/11} “oftest”: no entry

10/12} “erelong”: “Futurity,” 1.146.

10/18} “Dew-pallid”: “A Drama of Exile,” 1.75; “Palepassioned”: “A Drama of Exile,” 1.56; “silver-solemn”: “A Drama of Exile,” 1.53.

10/19} “derve”: “A Drama of Exile,” 1.68; “The Romaunt of the Page,” 1.166; “A Vision of Poets,” 2.30; supreme: “Crowned and Buried,” 2.149; lament: “A Drama of Exile,” 1.33.

10/22} “L.E.L.’s Last Questio”: title, 2.223

10/23} “The Cry of the Human”: title, 2.177; “Leaning from my human”: “To Flush, my Dog,” 2.161.

10/24} “Heaven assist the Human”: “A Drama of Exile,” 1.42; “the full sense of your mortal”: “The Fourfold Aspect,” 2.166; “a grave for your divine (Divine)!”: “The Dead Pan,” 2.273.

10/25} “falling (Falling) off from our created (Created)”: “A Drama of Exile,” 1.45; “(my master) sends this gage, (Lady,) for thy pity’s counting!”: “The Romance of the Swan’s Nest,” 2.261.

10/27} “they could not press their futures on that present of her courtesy”: “Lady Geraldine’s Courtship,” 1.245.

10/28} “Could another fairer / Lack to thee, lack to thee?”: “A Drama of Exile,” 1.55.

10/30} “Hope withdraws her peradventure”: “Catarina to Camoens,” 2.233.

10/31} “And deal in pathos of antithesis”: “A Drama of Exile,” 1.84; “Wherein I, angel, in antagonism to God and his reflex beatitudes”: “A Drama of Exile,” 1.88.

10/33-34} “Then a sough of glory shall your entrance greet / Ruffling round the doorway”: “A Drama of Exile,” 1.121; “God’s possible”: “The Cry of the Children,” 2.138; “rule of mandom”: “A [page 10:] Drama of Exile,” 1.105.

10/35-69} These lines were used almost verbatim in M 222.

10/40-46, 49-59, 73-74, 77-78} These are to be found on the following pages: 2.157, 1.29, 2.127, 1.30.

11/3, 5} From 1.19, line 98; 1.39, line 502.

11/8-10} From “Cry of the Children,” 2.139.153-56.

11/13-15} 1.103.1749-51.

11/15} abasement / debasement

11/24-27} 1.98.1653-56, and see 11/44 below.

11/43} Graham’s Magazine, 1/45, 27.46-47; passage (by E. P. Whipple?) quoted in entirety plus previous line: “Shall I be mother of the coming life?” It is set down, along with four other excerpts from “A Drama of Exile” under the sentence stating, “The following we cut from their connection with the Drama, for their independent beauty.”

11/44} Nat-Leeism: Nathaniel Lee (1653-1692), English playwright famed for the bombastic style of his Rival Queens and Sojourn in Bedlam (DNB). The critic in Graham’s was Edwin P. Whipple, Poe tells us in a late essay (see H 13.201). The four lines are collected by TOM (Poems, 377-78) as Poe’s adaptation of Barrett’s lines.

12/1} “A Drama. . .” 1.34: “Is God’s seal in a cloud. There seem to lie / A hundred thunders in it, dark and dead; / The unmolten lightnings vein it motionless;” and “The House of Clouds” 2.228: “Of a riven thunder-cloud, / Veined by the lightning!”

12/3-4} “A Drama. . .” 1.53: “And silver-solemn clash of cymbal wings.” and “The Dead Pan” 2.269: “And your silver clash of wings.”

12/6} “A Drama. . .” 1.27: “Of spirits’ tears.” and “A Drama. . .” 1.131: “as of the falling tears of an angel.”

12/8} “Lady Geraldine’s Courtship” 1.244: “When we drive [page 11:] out, from the cloud of steam, majestical white horses,” and “The Cry of the Human” 2.179: “The rail-cars snort from strand to strand, / Like more of Death’s White Horses!”

12/20} no entry in concordance

12/21} “Perplexed Music,” 1.144/14.

12/22} “Lady Geraldine’s Courtship,” 1.245/222.

12/23} “The Cry of the Children,” 2.137/123.

12/24} “Lady Geraldine’s Courtship,” 1.223/2. 12/25) “A Lay of the Early Rose,” 2.194/199-200. 12/26) “Catarina to Camodns,” 2.234/18.

12/27} “Catarina to Camodns,” 2.237/84.

12/28} “A Drama..,,” 1.26/227-8.

12/29} “Perplexed Music,” 1.144/11.

12/30} “A Drama. . .,” 1.59/892.

12/31} “The Romaunt of the Page,” 1.167-36.

12/32} “The Lay of the Brown Rosary,” 1.186/21.

12/33} “The Lay of the Brown Rosary,” 1.193/130.

12/34} “Lady Geraldine’s Courtship,” 1.223/1.

12/35} “A Vision of the Poets,” 2.43/653.

12/36} “A Child Asleep,” 2.129/31.

12/37} “The Cry of the Children,” 2.131/3.

12/38} “Catarina to Camodns,” 2.239/127.

12/39} “Catarina to Camodns,” 2.235/69.

12/40} “To Flush,” 2.161/90. [page 12:]

12/41} “The House of Clouds,” 2.231/79.

12/49} The OED gives “far-fetchedness” to Poe as the first user.

12/58} “A Drama. . .,” 1.43/583-4: “Think how erst your Eden, / Day on day succeeding”; “A Drama. . .,” 1,44/601-3: “While our feet struck glories / Outward, smooth and fair, / Which we stood on floorwise”; “A Drama. . .,” 1.45/618-20: “Then in odes of burning, / Brake we suddenly, / And sang out the morning. . .”

12/59} “A Drama. . .,” 1.45/627-8: “All disparted hither, thither, / Trembling out into the aether, — ”

“A Drama. . .,” 1.70/1089-90: “Filtered through roses, did the light enclose me; / And bunches of the grape swang blue across me — “.

12/60} “A Drama. . .,” 1.71/1114-6: “Thou man, thou woman, marked as the misdoers, / By God’s sword at your backs! I lent my clay / To make your bodies, which had grown more flowers”; “A Drama. . .,” 1.72/1131-2: “1 was obedient. Wherefore, in my centre, / Do I thrill at this curse of death and winter! — ”; “A Drama. . .,” 1.89/1477-9: “And we scorn you! there’s no pardon / Which can lead you aright! / When your bodies take the guerdon. . .”

12/61} “A Drama. . .,” 1.95-6/1600-2: “Strong to struggle, sure to conquer, — / Though the vessel’s prow will quiver / At the lifting of the anchor”; “A Drama. . .,” 1.101/1708-9: “As the simoom drives wild across the desert, — / As the thunder rears deep in the Unmeasured,-”; “A Drama. . .,” 1.101/1710-1: “As the torrent tears an ocean-world to atoms, — / As the whirlpool grinds fathoms below fathoms, — “.

12/62} “A Drama. . .,” 1.120/2079-81: “Through the door of opal, / We will draw you soothly / Toward the Heavenly people”; “A Drama. . .,” 1.121/2087-9: “Then a sough of glory / Shall your entrance greet; / Ruffling round the doorway. . .”; “A Drama. . .,” 1.122/2116-8: “To the thick graves accompted; / Awaking the dead bodies, / The angel of the trumpet. . .”

12/63} “A Drama. . .,” 1,126/2183-5: “Blind the beast shall stagger, where It overcame him, — / Meek as lamb at pasture-bloodless in desire — / Down the beast shall shiver, — slain amid [page 13:] the taming, — ”; “Lady Geraldine’s Courtship,” 1.251/277-9: “He had left her, — peradventure, when my footstep proved my coming — / But for her — she half arose, then sat — grew scarlet and grew pale: / Oh, she trembled! — ‘tis so always with a worldly man or woman‘;“The Lay of the Brown Rosary,” 1.185/6-7: “She looks down the garden-walk caverned with trees, / To the limes at the end, where the green arbour is — “.

12/64} “The Lay of the Brown Rosary,” 1.187/41-2: “The old convent ruin the ivy rots off, / Where the owl hoots by day, and the toad is sun-proof.”; “A Drama. . .,” 1.118/2030-2: “By the desert’s endless vigil, / We will solemnize your passions; / By the wheel of the black eagle. . .”; “Lady Geraldine’s Courtship,” 1.227/41-3: “Quite low born! self-educated! somewhat gifted though by nature, — / And we make a point of asking him, — of being very kind; / You may speak, he does not hear you; and besides, he writes no satire, — “.

12/65} “Lady Geraldine’s Courtship,” 1.239/157-9: “There, obedient to her praying, did I read aloud the poems / Made by Tuscan flutes, or instruments more various, of our own; / Read the pastoral parts of Spenser — or the subtle interflowings / Found in Petrarch’s sonnets. . .”; “Lady Geraldine’s Courtship,” 1.2445/213-5: “She was patient with my talking; and I loved her-loved her certes, / As I loved all Heavenly objects, with uplifted eyes and hands! / As I loved pure inspirations — loved the graces, loved the virtues“.

12/66} “Lady Geraldine’s Courtship,” 1.258-9/353-5: “Oh, of course, she charged her lacqueys to bear out the sickly burden, / And to cast it from her scornful sight — but not beyond the gate — / She is too kind to be cruel, and too haughty not to pardon. . .”; “The Lost Bower,” 2.124/334-5: “The young children laughed thereat; / Yet the wind that struck it, riseth, and the tempest shall be great!”; “The Cry of the Children,” 2.133/34-5: “Ask the old why they weep, and not the children, / For the outside earth is cold, — / And we young ones stand without, in our bewildering“.

12/67} “Wine of Cyprus,” 2.250/41-3: “Do not mock me! with my mortal, / Suits no wreath again, indeed! / I am sad-voiced as the turtle,”; “A Flower in a Letter,” 2.174/67-9: “Before the priestly moonshine! / And every wind with stoled feet, / In wandering down the alleys sweet, / Steps lightly on the sunshine;” [page 14:]

13/6-13} “Lady Geraldine’s Courtship,” 1.251/281-4.

13/30-39} “Lady Geraldine’s Courtship,” 1.238-9; line 34: “a brown partridge.”

13/51} psychal: for Poe’s coinage and frequent use see PCW, p. 35.

13/52-64} “Bertha in the Lane,” 2.201-2.

13/67-76} “The Lost Bower,” 2.115.

13/77} See Pin 14, 33; MM 7, 139A for Poe on Dante.

13/80-87} “The Cry of the Children,” 2.135-6.

14/3-8} “Crowned and Wedded,” 2.144-5 (with “glory and degree” in her poem).

14/11} In the forties Poe liked to cite the witticism ascribed incorrectly to Hierocles of Alexandria (ca. A.D. 430) as one of a collection of 260, concerning the “scholastikos” who offered a brick as a sample of a house that he wished to sell (see Poe’s rev. of Brougham’s Writings in the 3/42 Graham’s, H 11.101), his rev. of Dawes’ poetry in the 10/42 Graham’s (H 11.145); and his letter to Charles Anthon of 11/2/44. Poe apparently could not decide upon the spelling for the Greek “chi” (second letter) and used “h” and “k” and “ch“.

14/13} The word “constellatory” has 3 OED instances: 1650, 1823, and Poe’s.

14/24 ff.} The next two paras. were reused as the first of ten articles (Marginalia 213 ff.) in the 5/1849 SLM, q.v. in the Br. for glosses on all questions below save one in 14/62. Except for this and one in 15/1-3 (below), no changes of significance were made by Poe — sharpening of the rhetoric here and there for small substantive matters and improvement of the pointing. Since M 213a contains a collation it is here omitted. Note c treats of Poe’s love of Shelley and offers material from other Poe texts, especially for “The Sensitive Plant.”

14/25} Childe Harold III, xcvii. See M 213 for full glosses on Poe and Percy Bysshe Shelley and his “Sensitive Plant“ — a Poe [page 15:] favorite.

14/47} Francis Bacon, first baron Verulam (1561-1626), philosopher, lawyer, essayist. Poe often refers to his Essayes and borrows from them — but later he deprecates his philosophy. See Pin Intro.; SP 29; FS 3; MM 147, 213, 183, 196, 262.

14/57-65} The importance of this passage and the variation of Shelley’s work in the 1849 text warrants a similar note. Poe here combines a Tower of Babel with a Chinese pagoda with bells derived from the mad Ophelia, “Like sweet bells jangled, out of tune and harsh” (Hamlet, 3.1.166). Alastor: The Spirit of Solitude, about the quest of a doomed youth for the visionary ideal is somewhat more suitable than Prometheus Unbound; Poe’s sole ref. to these two works in this passage suggests his better acquaintance with Shelley’s short lyrics. Poe seems to consider “glare” as equivalent to “bizarrerie,” which he used often. For “spectrum” he is apparently going back to the root, meaning “image.”

14/70} Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834), leading English Romantic poet, later known for his interest in esoteric metaphysics, which Poe deplored. PD, p. 22; MM 109, 133, 193, 213, SM 19. Poe slightly reduces his scorn for him in M 213.

15/1} In the 1849 text Poe adds one small word of significance in his evolving theory of composition: “the most profound Art (based both in Instinct and Analysis) and the sternest Will“ — the italics and capital being Poe’s own. Since he had written the “Philosophy of Composition” and the essays on prosody by then, the deliberate sedulous working out of the Art-Product has become fundamental.

15/7-35} The last para. was not used by Poe for M 213, perhaps because he had realized (by 5/1849, date of the article) how specious was much of the talk about her imitating Tennyson. A little older (1806-61) than he (1809-92), she had been writing poems before his Poems, chiefly Lyrical (1830), and while she avowed her love of Tennyson in 1842, her style and themes derived much more from Byron, Shelley directly, Landor, Greek drama, et al. than from Tennyson. Her fame has sadly declined from then, with her verse considered “too fluent and undisciplined, despite her theoretical excuses for slack rhymes and her intense social protest” (Baugh, Lit. History of England, p. 1403; Sampson, Concise History of English Lit., 583). It is curious [page 16:] that Poe acknowledges her forthright independence and liberal tendencies toward human rights, product of Shelley and other Enlightenment writers, but he refuses openly to discuss the themes, in part because of his elevation solely of lyrical poetry, from which his antididacticism would exclude the message. As for her insistence upon the Tennyson influence — she did not start out with his “works beside her” and between the midthirties and 1845 Robert Browning, soon to be her husband, was providing a series of poems and verse dramas counting for far more influence over her style and form. Poe knew about the marriage and about Robert’s poetry, but probably indirectly (Letters, 320, 329). The profusion of images and the complicated comparison of Tennyson and E. B. B. as to health and imagination lead to confusion, not clear conclusion.

16/5} Nathaniel P. Willis (1806-67), editor, journalist, poet, graduated from Yale, 1827, edited American Monthly Magazine in Boston (1829-31), with reasonable success, despite notoriety as a poseur and dandy. In New York, he became associated with George P. Morris and went abroad as the New York Mirror’s foreign correspondent. Despite indiscreet dispatches, he again met with success, social and professional. Back in New York (1836) Willis began writing for the theater. In 1839-40 he published the weekly Corsair. He again, with Morris, became coeditor of the New Mirror, the daily Evening Mirror, and in 1846, the long-lived Home Journal. Willis defended Poe against later calumnies, and has a place of importance in the development of the American short story (DAB). See PD, p. 98; M 192.

16/10-11} Bryan Waller Proctor (1787-1874), English poet. Intimate with Hunt, Lamb, Dickens. Reginald Heber (1738-1826), popular poet and hymn writer. See SM 23; H 9.198, 12.36. Fitz Greene Halleck (1790-1867), American poet, featured in Griswold’s Poets and Poetry of America. See PD, p. 41, for numerous articles and comments. Henry Neele (1798-1828), solicitor, poet, and misc. writer, contributed to periodicals and pub. his collected poems in 1827. Willis reviewed his Literary Remains in 4/29, in the Am. Monthly Mag., 1.33, as “boarding school poetry, and lack-a-daisical prettyisms” (see Auser, Willis, 1969, pp. 28, 151). James Henry Leigh Hunt (1784-1859), English essayist and poet. Intimate with leading literary figures, especially the poets. See PD, p. 47; M 179. Charles Lamb (1775-1834), English essayist and humorist, see PD, p. 53; M 109. Washington Irving (1783-1859), the first characteristically American author, who established his reputation while American [page 17:] letters were in the formative stage of independence from British domination. See PD, p. 48; MM 156, 102.

16/14} “in fee simple impartite”; held in his own right, unconditionally, and not parted or divided.

16/38} Coleridge (q.v. 14/70) authored Aids to Reflection (C. Goodrich, Burlington, 1829, lxi [2] 399p.) and “Genevieve” (first published in the Cambridge Intelligencer, 11/1/1794 [pp. 19-20, Oxford ed., Coleridge]).

16/54-61} Poe’s passage on this distinction became part of the 5/46 “Lit.” sketch of Willis and also comprised FS 41 (q.v.), with the opinion on Thomas Moore.

17/12-36} These lines became M 220 (q.v.), just as the lines above. This entire section on Fancy was derived by Poe from Coleridge, as he admits (cf. M. Alterton, H. Craig, EAP, NY, 1935, rev. ed. 1962, p. xxvii; Floyd Stovall, EAP, 1969, 156-60). For collations with M 220 see the note, which discusses Hugo’s Cromwell as a source, and R. Jacob’s different view.

17/26} However, in “Philosophy of Composition” (para. 18, H 15.201), Poe denies this “neutrality” of topic by opting for “the death of a beautiful woman” as “the most poetical topic.” Cf. Ivor Winters in AL, 1937, rep. in E. Carlson, Recognition of Poe (1966), pp. 184-90.

18/9-10} The final phrase may strike us as an instance of Poe’s allowing the sound of an alliterative pair of words to determine the thought, such as it is; it yields very little significant meaning.






[S:0 - BRP4J, 1986] - Edgar Allan Poe Society of Baltimore - Editions - The Collected Writings of Edgar Allan Poe (B. R. Pollin) (January 1845)